Эффективность государственного управления: политологический и экономический подходы
The article considers the modern approaches to the understanding and measurement of the effectiveness of state power. The authors investigate the opportunities provided by Data Envelopment Analysis in measuring efficiency. Methods of the solution of up-to-date efficiency research tasks are analyzed. Tools proposed in article can become the basis for building a comprehensive model of the efficiency of public organizations.
The article deals with contemporary approaches to state effectiveness research. The author compares the advantages and drawbacks of two key approaches prevailing in the field: the organizational approach, dealing with micro-level research; and the institutional approach, aimed at state-level comparative research. There is a way to combine the advantages of these approaches when using Data Envelopment Analysis. The author conducts an empirical research into Russian and Canadian public health care systems to illustrate the advantages of using DEA when analyzing state effectiveness.
The study has two major focuses. The first one is of a methodological kind: we investigate the capabilities of a formal dynamic model to link theory and empirical estimation techniques. The other one is much more specified: we deal with the problems of public good provision and public capital accumulation and depreciation. Tying it all together, we demonstrate how formal theory can adjust the evaluation of public investment efficiency.
The first part of the paper presents the dynamic formal model construction. The core of it is Cobb-Douglas production function with public and private capital as input factors. Public capital stock is increased by budget investment inflow. A set of parameters which regulate system’s efficiency enters the model. They are total factor productivity, public investment effectiveness and the efficiency of public assets’ maintenance and utilization. We also define a special policy space of the model.
In the major part of the paper we examine the data, generated by various models with different efficiency parameter values, via Data envelopment analysis (DEA). We demonstrate that the best estimates are obtained when we use cumulative inputs (the sum of budgets investments over a few time periods). Thus we show that dynamic formal model analysis can make a practical contribution to estimation techniques’ “fine tuning”.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.