"Клеточная глобализация" и тенденции в сельских сообществах ближнего севера России
The paper presents the history of the rise, as well as themes and theoretical foundations os Ugory project, a complex interdisciplinary study of rural communities and the natural capital in one of the regions of the Russian Near North. The article defines the main objectives of the project, as well as its major conceptual approaches.
The author examines the processes of globalization (‘cellular globalization’) in the Near North of Russia in the context of the increasing role of natural capital and the impact of the environment on the life of urban and rural communities. In the article it is discussed the transfer of the curriculum of a large modern university of the countryside ecological milieu as a part of large-scale migration trend, i.e. the invariant of the process of the transition of megapolis to the non-urban environment. The new information and communication technologies of distance learning enhance this process.
Mastering the North was a long-term problem for the Russian state, which at least from the eighteenth century tried to organize the effective use of its resources. This chapter illustrates two very distinct foreign models employed for the “state colonization” of the Russian North in a formative period between the Great Reform of 1861 and Stalin’s industrialization of 1930s: Norway and Canada. Although the use of the Norwegian model for colonization of the Russian North is relatively well studied, “railway colonization” of 1920s is not that well known,and very few works embrace both imperial and early Soviet periods of colonization.
Are people eternally destined to live in cities? Are jungles made of concrete, metal and glass the only environment in which they deserve to exist – even in the remote future? Today, these important questions coexist with various correlations and consequences in multiple areas of life and expertise. Historically, mankind emerged from rural environments, which have an inherent closeness to natural wildness, and endlessly strived for life in the city. This used to be the process and, until recently, it seemed to be unidirectional. However, people currently live in a period of radical change. Recovering the ancestral reunion with Nature is not only a matter of personal choice; it is becoming an imperative, a “Hobson’s choice,” indeed. This trend stands true for many societies in the contemporary world, including Russia.
Today globalization can be treated as the most important global process. It is a multi-faceted phenomenon and in every country it has its own image. One can get a truly objective picture of the rapidly changing and integrating world only through a synthesis of all those particular visions. In the present anthology one can find perceptions of globalization by a number of famous scholars from different countries of the world (Ervin Laszlo, Roland Robertson, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, Randall Collins, Christopher Chase-Dunn, William Thompson and others), but one can also get to know rather peculiar visions of globalization by the Russian scientists.
The volume is entitled Globalistics and Globalization Studies. Globalistics may be regarded as a sort of systemic and more or less integrated ‘core’ within Global Studies. The anthology consists of four parts presenting a wide range of views on the meaning of the contemporary epoch, the past and the future of some important global processes. Part 1. Historical Dimension. Part 2. Globalistics, Global Studies and Models. Part 3. Trends, Risks, and Problems. Part 4. Perspectives and the New World Order.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.