Проблема визуальных обманок в аналитических теориях изобразительной репрезентации
The article is dedicated to the reconstruction and criticism of the methodological features of the analysis of the illusionist pictures (trompe-l'œil) problem by representatives of various stands of analytic philosophy of depiction. As a rule, representatives of this theoretical school develop theories that aim to give as broad explanatory coverage as possible, so dealing with “borderline” and complex examples of pictures is crucial for them. At the same time, in their analysis of trompe-l'œil, they focus on the first stage of their perception – the stage of delusion. It turns out that this class of depictions is the most problematic for theories that explain visual representation through the specifics of image perception: the best example is found in Richard Wollheim’s approach, where visual illusions are not recognized as representational pictures at all. On the other hand, representatives of structural theories tend to leave out the important features of this class of depiction, which allowed it to gain a distinctive cultural status. An interesting alternative is offered by Dominic M. Lopes and Bence Nanay, who emphasize the diversity of ways of perceiving images: in their theories, delusion is not a mandatory and inevitable way of perceiving trompe-l'œil. Interestingly, all of these approaches underestimate the importance of the temporal aspect of image understanding, which is important even in less complex and controversial cases. Among other factors necessary for a comprehensive analysis of the problem of trompe-l'œil, the spatial, bodily and contextual aspects of pictorial perception, as well as the problem of their non-referential content, are highlighted. In addition, the approaches under consideration (with an important exception of Gombrich) practically do not specify that the production and exposition of “classical” trompe-l'œil is an artistic practice in which ideas of authorship and skill are always in the foreground. As a consequence, the heuristic value of the issue of trompe-l'œil is not just in helping to test the explanatory potential or validity of a particular theory, but also in identifying some limitations of the methodological apparatus of analytic philosophy of depiction.