«Группа восьми»: модели реформирования и возможности для трансформации роли Европейского союза
This paper focuses on the period beginning with 1998, with only a brief reference to early reform initiatives of the G8. It will examine and comment on reform proposals as well as reforms actually achieved or underway. It will pay particular attention to the reform dimension of the evolving G5, Heiligendamm Process, BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China), Major Economies Meeting and G20 groupings, and to the G8's relationship to these structures. The chapter concludes with outlining possible trajectories of G8 reform.
This paper attempts to put G8 and G20 institutions within the same assessment paradigm on the basis of a functional framework. This approach allows comparing the G8 and G20 across at least three groups of indicators: performance of global governance functions, accountability and compliance performance; contribution towards global governance agenda; and engagement with the other international institutions. It begins with outlining the methodology, and goes over to the main findings and conclusions on each of the dimensions. Thus the study contributes to building a quantifiable evidence base for an assessment of the G20 and G8 effectiveness and to inform forecast of their future roles.
The G20 has proved that it can respond to crises. It has to live up to the expectations that it can prevent global risks, break dead locks other institutions responsible for resolving critical issues were unable to break. Challenging a plethora of skeptics G20 is now a long term process in motion. The G20 leaders’ decisions on the Mexican 2012 Presidency’s five priorities, which are broadly shared across the G20 members and beyond, are expected to advance global financial and economic stability; promote growth and jobs creation through structural reforms; make progress towards international financial institutions reform; strengthen financial regulation; enhance food security and mitigate commodity price volatility. The summit commitments and their implementation by the G20 and relevant international institutions will show how much the expectations held would prove to be the expectations met.
The paper presents analysis of the G8 and G20 assistance to developing countries in overcoming the consequences of economic and financial crisis. It assesses the G8's and G20's implementation of key global governance functions and highlights their engagement with international organizations. In conclusion the author gives recommendations for rational division of labour between the institutions in international development assistance.
For the first time since World War II, the U.S. seem to lose leadership at the multilateral trade talks shifting accents to bilateral and regional trade cooperation. The main reason for the shift is a deadlock at the WTO Doha-round negotiations where the U.S. face opposition of the steadily growing economies of India, China and Brazil.
Торговые переговоры, ГАТТ, ВТО, США, многосторонняя торговая система, ЕС, Япония, ИНДИЯ, КИТАЙ, Бразилия, Дж. Буш-мл., Б. Обама, М. Баррозу, Р. Зеллик, П. Лами, Р. Кирк, Л. да Силва, Карел де Гюхт, АТЭС, НАФТА, АСЕАН, трансатлантическое партнерство, "двадцатка", trade talks, GATT, WTO, U.S., Multilateral Trading System, Eu, Japan, India, China, Brazil, G.-W. Bush, B. Obama, M. Barrozo, R. Zoellick, P. Lamy, R. Kirk, L. da Silva, Karel de Gucht, APEC, NAFTA, ASEAN, Transatlantic Partnership, G 20
Five papers analyze the bidirectional relationship between poverty and migration in developing countries. Papers discuss the patterns of migration in Tanzania (Kathleen Beegle, Joachim De Weerdt, and Stefan Dercon); work-related migration and poverty reduction in Nepal (Michael Lokshin, Mikhail Bontch-Osmolovski, and Elena Glinskaya); the evolution of Albanian migration and its role in poverty reduction (Carlo Azzarri, Gero Carletto, Benjamin Davis, and Alberto Zezza); migration choices, inequality of opportunities, and poverty reduction in Nicaragua (Edmundo Murrugarra and Catalina Herrera); and how developing country governments can facilitate international migration for poverty reduction (John Gibson and David McKenzie). Murrugarra is Senior Economist in the Latin America and Caribbean Region at the World Bank. Larrison is a PhD candidate and Assistant Teacher in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at George Washington University. Sasin is Economist in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department at the World Bank. Index.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.