Психологическая готовность к организационным изменениям: подходы, понятия, методики
Psychological readiness is one of the key factors in the successful implementation of organizational change. The purpose of this article is to analyze and systematization of modern ideas of researchers about the readiness of staff to organizational change. The article deals with the concept of “psychological readiness”, marked readiness levels of analysis (individual, group, organization), highlighted the structural and psychological readiness factors. The psychological factors on the individual level of analysis include: efficacy, appropriateness, support, company management, personal valence. At the group level of analysis is collective commitment and collective efficiency. Different approaches to understanding readiness for organizational change are analyzed. Readiness for a change as the attitude that has the classic structure of a three-component (cognitive, affective and behavioral component). Readiness to change in terms of J. Prochazka’s behavior change model. Under this model, the readiness is viewed from a dynamic point of view, as one of the stages of behavior change in the situation. Readiness for change within the dispositional approach is being studied as an innovative disposition, which has a hierarchical structure. Readiness to change in the A. Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior is seen as an intention to perform an action based on perceived norms and perceived control. There are described and compared in terms of strengths and weaknesses of diagnostic techniques readiness assessment applicable in the context of the study and implementation of organizational change, such as “Readiness to organizational change”, “Organizational readiness for implementing change,” “Organizational Change Questionnaire — Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness”, ”Styles of response to changes” and others. In general, understanding approach, which is based on research and evaluation tools, it allows to lay the foundation for a unified methodology for studying the readiness of staff to the organizational changes and the development of the universal instruments for its diagnosis and evaluation.