Соотношение научных и утопических элементов в политическом мышлении Карла Маркса
It is known that Karl Marx distinguished his theory both from pure «science» and from the «utopianism» inherent in his predecessors. Paradoxically, it is these two elements that constitute the thinking of Marx himself, being with each other in a complex interaction, the specifics of which this article is intended to reveal. For this aim, the author distances himself from the classical political-philosophical debate about the relationship between Marx and the «utopian socialists» criticized by Marx. Instead, it is proposed to consider Marx's approach as a «research program» (Imre Lakatos), a «cognitive utopia» (Peter Lassman) and a «functional utopia» (Karl Mannheim). On the basis of this analysis, features in the development of «Soviet» and «Western» Marxism are briefly traced. In conclusion, a further direction of Marx's analysis is proposed through the study of the third – theological – component of his thinking.