В секции «Социология профессий»
Über den Einfluss der Experten auf die Sicherung des Eigentums im östlichen Europa.
Im vorliegenden Band werden die Geschichte juristischer, administrativer, technischer und künstlerischer Professionen in Deutschland, Ostmitteleuropa und Russland, Westeuropa und den USA vom 19. Jahrhundert bis heute verglichen. Der Titel »Professionen, Eigentum und Staat« zeigt an, was die hier versammelten Untersuchungen über Professionen in verschiedenen Ländern und Großregionen zusammenhält: Es geht um das Zusammenspiel dreier zentraler Dimensionen der Modernisierung, nämlich 1) der beruflichen und fachlichen Spezialisierung in der Welt des Wissens und der Ausdrucksformen (Professionalisierung), 2) der Durchsetzung der Eigentumsordnung in der Landwirtschaft, Industrie und Kultur (Propertisierung) und 3) der Etablierung des territorialen Nationalstaats als politisch, sozial, kulturell, wirtschaftlich und rechtlich begründete souveräne Organisation (Nationalisierung).
Es soll gezeigt werden, wie diese in der Forschung oft isoliert behandelten Prozesse in verschiedenen Kontexten und Konstellationen ineinandergreifen; wo und wann sie sich wechselseitig verstärken oder behindern; und welche Formen von Beruflichkeit und Profession daraus resultieren.
The author describes the principal stages in the development of research in profession prestige since the emergence of the field in 1925 and up to the recent publications of 2006. The key phenomenon uncovered in the course of the research is that the relative rating of prestigious professions remains almost independent of research technique, surveyed group, time or place. More precise recent studies showed that profession prestige does exhibit small dynamics, but nevertheless remains fairly stable. However, studies of this type are practically non-existent in Russia. The author offers a very general picture of the concept of profession prestige as it emerged in Western sociology after hundreds of studies. The conclusion of the article is that research on profession prestige is highly desirable in Russia. It is of use both for practical purposes (for education and professional orientation, or as an objective stratification parameter, for all social sciences) and as an independent topic of study.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attention under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad. Intended for sociologists and philosophers, university lecturers, post- and graduate students
With annoying lateness ideologists of general higher education have carried out the analysis (V.E.Gimpelson. «A trade choice: in that studied and where were useful?») also have found out that only 60 % of owners of diplomas of high school work on highest level specialities, and in the field of biological and agricultural sciences — 20 %. Almost 30 % of engineers occupy workplaces.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.