В секции «Социология профессий»
Within a sociological context, professionalism is increasingly examined on the macro level as a universal social phenomenon that is evolving in diverse ways throughout modern societies. Approaching professionalism from a phenomenological perspective entails investigating it at the micro level; such as examining group communication in the labor process, during which meanings are produced that are shared by members of a professional group. The professionalism and professionalization in Russia are presented in this entry within the theoretical framework known as the “critical ecology of the professions”; a research direction that seeks to reconcile the macro and micro levels of professionalism and combine wider views of certain institutional universals with knowledge of local cultural contexts and the specific contexts of various occupational groups. This approach combines the theoretical lens of critical ecology with a neo-Weberian stance that understands professionalism as emerging from a system of arguments that support the upward mobility of members of a particular occupation. The professionalization here is treated as a fluid and multifaceted phenomenon. The authors show how the processes behind it have evolved across the shifting contexts of prerevolutionary, Soviet, and post-Soviet Russia.
This article about theoreticac perspectives professional ethics.
Über den Einfluss der Experten auf die Sicherung des Eigentums im östlichen Europa.
Im vorliegenden Band werden die Geschichte juristischer, administrativer, technischer und künstlerischer Professionen in Deutschland, Ostmitteleuropa und Russland, Westeuropa und den USA vom 19. Jahrhundert bis heute verglichen. Der Titel »Professionen, Eigentum und Staat« zeigt an, was die hier versammelten Untersuchungen über Professionen in verschiedenen Ländern und Großregionen zusammenhält: Es geht um das Zusammenspiel dreier zentraler Dimensionen der Modernisierung, nämlich 1) der beruflichen und fachlichen Spezialisierung in der Welt des Wissens und der Ausdrucksformen (Professionalisierung), 2) der Durchsetzung der Eigentumsordnung in der Landwirtschaft, Industrie und Kultur (Propertisierung) und 3) der Etablierung des territorialen Nationalstaats als politisch, sozial, kulturell, wirtschaftlich und rechtlich begründete souveräne Organisation (Nationalisierung).
Es soll gezeigt werden, wie diese in der Forschung oft isoliert behandelten Prozesse in verschiedenen Kontexten und Konstellationen ineinandergreifen; wo und wann sie sich wechselseitig verstärken oder behindern; und welche Formen von Beruflichkeit und Profession daraus resultieren.
This chapter focuses on the analysis of post-Soviet films and TV series dedicated to the medical profession, and it explores how the perception of gender and the representation of work practices among this professional group have changed in recent decades. The new cinematographic images are considered to be a result of Western cultural impact (after 1991) and Soviet cultural legacies. The 2000s witnessed the return of the special attention to “doctors” and “medical professionals” as the heroes of post-socialist drama and melodrama. However, these images are often misogynistic, and it is possible to say that cinematographic metaphors reflect developments in social attitudes.
This article presents material from literature and responses from national experts about social work developments in the 15 Former Soviet Union (FSU) states, since independence in 1991. Taking professionalization as a theoretical framework and considering the role of the state and other actors, the authors use a thematic approach to analyse the factors relevant to the professional project. Throughout the region, the state is identified as still the major actor in driving welfare changes and creating the organizational and legislative bases for the development of social work. A chronology of legislation relevant to the establishment of social work is included which highlights the variations in the pace of developments, as do the establishment of professional education (throughout the region) and professional associations (in most countries). The authors conclude that the professional project faces many challenges across the FSU region and the progress made – or lack of it in some countries – can be related to the politics and economics of particular states. However, the evidence suggests that, less than a quarter of a century after the demise of communism, this project has been initiated in all but one FSU countries and there are indications of positive developments.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attention under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad. Intended for sociologists and philosophers, university lecturers, post- and graduate students
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.