О возможности метакогнитивной регуляции мертвой зоны внимания
Theoretical model disclosing the occurrence of different systems of thought due to different cultural practices and explaining essential distinctions between East Asians and Westerners is presented in the article. The authors find East Asians to be holistic. attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it. making relatively little use of categories and formal logic. and relying on "dialectical" reasoning. Westerners are more analytic. paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs. They use rules. including formal logic. to understand object's behavior. Described types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies which are typical for the representatives of the mentioned cultures. The hypotheses is put forward that the origin of these differences is traceable to markedly different social systems. Theoretical approach and evidence presented in the article call into question long-held assumptions about basic (and universal) cognitive processes and even about the appropriateness of the process-content distinction.
This essay describes two experimental studies, which demonstrate the existence of «dead zones» in visual attention. The phenomenon of «dead zones» manifests in the task of finding and identifying changes, and is one example within the currently widely-studied field of change blindness - the inability to find and/or identify visual changes of an object in a field of vision, under the conditions of interruptions of perception in the moment of the aforementioned changes. «Dead zones» in visual attention are starkly expressed «blindness» to changes in objects which are located in close proximity to an object which attracts higher attention. In Experiment 1, the phenomenon of «dead zones» is demonstrated in the context of a standard methodology of «flickering», designed to study change blindness in complex visual scenarios (Rensink et al., 1997). In Experiment 2, the phenomenon is demonstrated by a specially developed methodology of sudden changes. This essay discusses hypotheses of the possible mechanisms pertaining to these «dead zones» in attention.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.