Добровольчество пожилых: проблемы, практика, перспективы
The article presents a comparative analysis of the internal structure and principles of the organization of volunteer associations in Russia and France from the perspective of the sociology of organizations. The theoretical framework of the study combines the concepts of the neo-institutionalist approach in economic sociology and the network approach to organizations. Data are drawn from a series of in-depth expert interviews with the leaders of socially-oriented volunteer organizations in France and Russia (14 interviews). The author also conducted analysis of legal documents and communication materials of volunteer associations in each of the countries studied (approximately 40 documents totaling over 200 pages of text). It appears that the Russian and French volunteer sectors differ not only in structure and legal status of voluntary organizations, but also in the conceptual definition of volunteering. Drawing on empirical data, it was found that the French volunteer associations exist in a structured institutional environment, while Russian voluntary associations perform in a poorly structured, constantly changing environment, the main problem of which is the lack of cognitive and socio-political legitimacy. Thus, the French model of volunteering is more similar to the mechanism of institutional organizations, while Russian voluntary associations are more typical of networked organizations. This research suggests a different vision of the nature of voluntary organizations and argues that it is impossible to ignore national characteristics in the development of social policy. Conclusions drawn from this research could be applied to the development of public policy regarding the non-profit sector in Russia.
dance4life is a globally active organization within the fields of HIV, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the Millennium Development Goals, specifically aiming to establish a social youth movement consisting of 1 million agents4change by 2014. The central mission of dance4life is to power a movement that creates change at global and community level by taking action to improve young people’s SRHR, and in particular, improving access to sexuality education and youth-friendly services, and to challenge stigma and discrimination and break down taboos that surround sexuality, especially focusing on HIV and AIDS. KIT was invited to partner with dance4life on an impact assessment of dance4life’s work, with a focus on mixed methods and the involvement of the young people themselves. The assessment took place in two countries: Uganda and Russia. A pilot study was undertaken in the Netherlands to test the qualitative research instruments.
This book represents the 8th volume of results obtained from the monitoring of the status of civil society in Russia that is conducted by the Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector (the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”) in conjunction with the leading sociological centres of Russia. The empirical base of this publication is formed from the data of All-Russian survey of population aged 18 years and older, that was based on representative sample and carried out in 83 regions of Russia in 2259 localities within the framework of expert services on the strategy of socio-economic development of Russia till 2020. The data provided characterizes engagement of Russians in volunteering, charitable donations and other social and political practices. The data describes determinants of Russians connected with responsibility for actions taken in their neighborhoods and localities and the country at large and their sense of the opportunity to exert their influence over it. This book will be of use to social and political scientists, economists, teachers and students of the social sciences and anyone, interested in the development of civil society in Russia.
S-Theory as a Comprehensive Explanation of Charitable Giving: Testing a Theory of Everyone on Russian National Sample Interview Data
The paper presents a brief analysis on the quality of cause-specific mortality statistics at old ages in Russia. Two aspects are in focus: the regional differences in approaches for choosing the underlying cause of death and the comparison of Russian coding practice with the practices of some other European countries. The results obtained indicate that there are certain problems with the quality of cause-of-death coding at old ages in Russia. No unified approach to coding deaths as caused by “Senility” is used at a sub-national level. This leads to the distortion of the regional cause-specific mortality structures. Furthermore for many groups of causes Russian death rates are much lower than those in European countries. This peculiarity is caused by the specificity of Russian cause-of-death coding practice which results in underestimating the mortality from certain causes at old ages.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.