Характеристики учителей и достижения школьников. Применение метода first difference к данным TIMSS-2007
One merit of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is that apart from a direct school students cognitive appraisal, it enables to collect information on teachers of these students, on their education, work experience and teaching practices. The first difference method was used to determine how teachers characteristics were associated with students achievements and to overcome restrictions of TIMSS correlation design. In addition, effects of teachers characteristics were evaluated by the conventional regressions method. The discovered associations differed across subject areas, and the first difference method results differed from the conventional correlation analysis results. For mathematics the first difference method revealed negative association of reproductive tasks and collaborative learning with achievements, and tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills showed positive association. For natural science reproductive tasks showed, on the contrary, positive association, while tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills either did not produce any effects, or they were negative. Also, for natural science, unlike mathematics, a teachers experience considerably influenced students achievements.