Studying values: Personal adventures, future directions
This article first gives a brief overview of my adventures in developing two theories of values and the methods to measure them. First came my theory of the basic values on which individuals in all cultures differ. Then, quite unexpectedly, the opportunity arose to develop a theory of cultural values on which societies differ. As the story unfolds, I tell of failures, triumphs, and challenges. Values research has expanded in the past two decades beyond my wildest early imaginings. The second section of the article presents some ideas about future directions worth pursuing in values research. It describes competing theories and controversies as well as ways to go beyond them. I hope it will stimulate further advances in this field to which I have devoted more than 20 years.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The concept of national character is considered in the paper, Russian national character is analyzed from the point of view of Russian and foreign writers and philosophers. Results of researches of values dynamics on the boundary of XXI century on Schwarz's methodology in Russia and abroad are regarded. The values of Russians are compared to values of Western and the Eastern Europeans and to values of China people. The results of researches of values impact on economic development and the attitudes to innovations in Russia are analyzed.
Article analyses problems of formation of economic system oriented towards sustainable socio-economic development of the economy of “High North”. Author emphasizes existing approach based upon “economy of scale” does not fits to the modern tasks of the economic development in harmony with preservation of the unique Nature and, more over traditional life style and economic activity of endogenous people of the North. Due to author opinion, solution is available in way of integration of modern technology (including Internet of things), extension of rights of local communities and municipalities in natural resources management (based upon inclusive principles) and also formation of spatially interconnected value chains as of goods as of services. Economy od Arctic could not be analyzed and valued as spatially closed system. Economic interests of Arctic areas (first of all of municipalities and communities) needs to be presented at all stages of value creation and value accumulation. Basis for this lies in a term “social value”. Only this basis could create and develop appropriate socio-economic systems oriented towards harmonization of common and specific features of the Arctic economy.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.