О "реставрации" и "нивелировании" заимствований в процессе языковой интернационализации
The article deals with the tendency for borrowings to restore and expand the weakened ties with the original units in the source language both in their form and, especially, in their semantics. The growing exposure to global English also causes the extension of the meaning of some international lexis to approximate their English language equivalents. These phenomena are defined as "restoration" and "leveling" of borrowings and are treated as a specific type of calquing, induced by globalization and internationalization.
Variation and variety, basic linguistic notions elaborated, among many others, in Prof. Schweitzer’s works, are addressed in the article in the context of an increase in variation in modern Russian under the influence of global English. The increase in contact-induced variation is investigated in connection with the following: 1) an increase in borrowings and semantic calques from English into Russian, 2) an increase in Russian-English code-switching and code-mixing, and 3) major changes in Russian-English interaction contributing to the change of status of English in Russia and the initiation of a specific regional variety of English, Russia(n) English.
Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
L’auteure précise les bouleversements qui ont eu lieu à la suite de l’effondrement de l’URSS sur la discipline économique, bouleversement qui a forcément délégitimé les économistes de type soviétique au profit des économistes étasuniens néolibéraux. Pour mieux situer le paradigme actuel de l’économie dominante, elle plonge dans le passé à l’instar de philosophes de l’économie pour mettre en perspective la situation actuelle et comprendre certains aspects fondamentaux de réseaux scientifiques.
The collection of articles, dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the St Petersbourg School of Conferrence Interpreting and Translation, at Herzen University, naturally concentrates on various aspects of translation in a multicultural world dominated by English, serving as the lingua franca. This 10th anniversary collection has brought together selected scholars from different countries with the primary aim of providing fresh interpretations of inter-cultural communication. The contributors were free to present their approaches to several thematically integrated topics. The collection is divided into five sections, so that their core issues and the topics thus discussed provide a thorough overview of the field.
The paper aims to show that globalization of English does not imply its mere passive consumption by local languages and cultures. Global English often functions as an important “other” in interaction with which local cultural identities are refashioned and maintained. Several recent English-Russian borrowings are analyzed to vindicate this idea.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.