Originally, safety of goods was presumed to be a guaranteed part of quality of goods, and producing of goods of a poor quality was regarded as a crime (soviet period). According to the present day approach towards technical regulation only safety requirements are obligatory, and quality of goods is not being provided by state, with certain exceptions. One of them is the turnover of oil and oil products. In the article the author analyses provisions of the Instruction on control and quality providing of oil products turnover (established by the order of RF Energy Ministry of 19.06.2003) and Technical Regulations on requirements for the automobile and air engine fuel, diesel and ship fuel, fuel for reaction-propulsion units and furnace fuel oil.
We survey the literature that emphasizes the importance of comparative and absolute advantages for intra- and inter-industry trade. Two conclusions follow form the survey. First, unlike the traditional view, intra-industry trade is determined rather by technology than by increasing returns. Second, absolute advantages that were ignored in international trade models for a long time play a vital role through their linkages with product quality and export diversification. We also discuss a new strand of literature that models international trade with the assumption of non-homothetic preferences.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.