Институты–посредники между органами власти и обществом: случай Санкт-Петербурга
This paper is devoted to the development in contemporary Russia of the institutes with mediator functions. Th e development on regional level (case of Sankt-Petersburg) of Public and Consultative Councils from one side and Institutes of Commissioners for human rights and for children rights are analyzed from comparative approach. Th e subjects of research are history of creation and development of this institutes, normative base, personal structure and results of its activities. The conclusions about realization of paternalistic or partner’s model of state-society relation in every cases are formulated.
The authors examine functions and activities of public councils as subjects of public control, and provide data on the legal regulation of public control and activities of its subjects in the Russian Federation. The article underlines the following main problems in the work of public councils: the fragmented legal regulation, and the low public involvement in solving socially significant problems that require active participation of citizens. The article is based on the empirical study conducted in 2015—2016 by the Committee of Public Relations of the Government of Moscow in cooperation with the Public Chamber of Moscow according to the orders of the Russian President given at the plenary session of the Public Chamber on 23.06.2015 in the framework of monitoring the effectiveness of public councils under the executive branch of the Federation subjects. The study of the activities of public councils under the state and local authorities was conducted in the form of a survey, which revealed that the public councils under the executive bodies of Moscow do not pursue a coordinated policy in respect of personnel, functions and regulations, and often perform different and incomparable in scale functions. Based on the research findings, the authors suggest some measures to enhance the effectiveness of public councils, such as unification of legal regulations and working formats, which would improve public awareness of the public councils’ activities and of the opportunities of personal involvement in such. However, the raising awareness and increasing interest in the public control should be accompanied by the development of effective mechanisms of involvement in the public control practices.
The article considers the Institution of Presidential Commissioner for Children's Rights in the Russian Federation. The author analyzes legal aspects and features of this institute in Russia. The article gives the complex efficiency assessment of the Institution of Presidential Commissioner in the Russian Federation and the main directions of his activity.
Standard basis of information legal relations in the sphere of civil control is the right to information. Carriers of this right are subjects of civil control. That because data on activity of government bodies, and other objects of civil control, have to be transparent for the persons intending to exercise civil control.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.