Журналистика и публичная экспертиза
Formation of democratic societies of the Western type presupposes appearance on the historical scene of a new strong actor - the bourgeois class: "No bourgeoisie, no democracy" (Barrington Moore). The articulation and defense of vital interests of that class creates a new social space - "the bourgeois public sphere" which helps to make up "counterbalance" to absolutism of a corporate state - a civil society, the core of which is composed by public opinion. In the confrontation between the authorities and society one of the most important roles is played by the press that provides free debate and discussion of generally valid problems, especially economic and political. The recognition of the mass media role was stamped in its characterization in XIII century as "the fourth power". Technological development of the media incredibly expanded its functions, turning journalists into creating informational analogue of reality, saturating daily life with new meanings. Methods of the representation of reality, the specific nature of political influence of journalists - key members of the reflexive elites (Helmut Shelski), are the themes of this article.
Публичная сфера, журналистика, четвертая власть, порядки знания, Повседневность, научное и повседневное знание, экспертиза, Репрезентация, public sphere, journalism, fourth estate, orders of knowledge, Everyday life, scientific and everyday knowledge, Expertise, representation
Yearbook World of Media has been being published since 2009. It represents an annual review of original researches in the field of media and journalism studies conducted by Russian authors from diverse cities and institutions.World of Media is aimed at promoting the development of Russian media and journalism studies in both national and global contexts, and stimulating a wider public interest in the journalism theories, methods, findings and applications generated by research in communication and allied fields. Yearbook World of Media is affiliated with National Association of Mass Media Researchers (NAMMI).
World of Media is published in the English language.
The book shows as at the end of the 18-th – 19-th centuries Russians "populated” the growing public sphere by the voluntary associations, based on the principles of the Age of the Enlightenment. As a result of the mission of scientific associations, the civil society in Russia became unavoidable connected with patriotism and propagation of scientific knowledge. Analyzing the capabilities of scientific associasions for self-identification, independent activity and organization, the book create the wide institutional context, in the framework of which they acted, and also evaluates their role in the development of civil society in tsarist Russia. The development of voluntary associations in Russia is placed into the comparative context of European history and political thought. Although the historians emphasize the special features of the development of the Russian Empire, particular associations in Russia were the part of the European phenomenon. Their history reveals the important features of the relations between the state and the society under the conditions of the absolutism, when voluntary associations were created and was supported the space of public initiative and independent activity, from where the sprouts of citizenship grew.
Grigoriy Konson’s interview with MD, Associate Professor at the University of Birmingham Armen Gasparyan unravels the key issues of modern Russian science, which is found now at the intersection of diverse trends. One of the main ones is the increasing visibility of Rus-sian-language scientific journals at the international level and digitalization so that they could technically become high-quality and indexable. To do this, two basic conditions must be observed: authors must possess all copyrights, and their works must be stored in repositories, that are needed by scientists to gain world visibility and long-term use of published materials. Since the Interna-tional Conference in Budapest (2001), a global initiative to publish open access scientific papers has been established. This was done so that scholars working with scientific materials could make them publically available and widely use such materials for scientific purposes. Now there is a tendency to open servers, which contain not only published and peer-reviewed works, but also pre-publication materials. Preprint services became a recent innovation. Media, television, and cinema scholars post scientific materials that have not been published before. This makes it possible to get priority in their writings. There are also tools to promote open access. These are, first of all, digital identifiers of scien-tific materials and authors. Since 2012, digital author identifiers (Open Researcher and Contribu-tor ID [ORCID]) are widely used in many countries; there are more than 6 million registered users. The digital identifier ORCID is popular among Russian-speaking authors as well, but often they use only part of its capabilities. Information about many Russian-speaking authors is not repre-sented in full on the ORCID platform, which means that their works are not visible to the public. The development of open access journals is mainly hampered by the hybrid-type periodicals, combining the principles of open and subscription publications. There are a lot of such journals in Russia. The majority of them are about medicine; and as a matter of fact, digitalization is gradually making the traditional subscription wither away. Therefore, professional communities need to take on the responsibility of financing open access publications to allow journals to advance. In the era of open access, plagiarism can be timely discovered, while in subscription journals it is veiled. Future expectations are that Russian-language periodicals that do not follow new trends in science and publishing can cease to exist. They become bankrupt; they cannot find alternative sources of financing. However, their prestige needs to be enhanced through open access. There should be an increase in the number of multilingual journals that will attract English-language authors.
The author considers the term «compensative expertise» and its role in successful language mastering.
This paper is devoted to an analysis of a book written by the Finnish, Dutch and Belgian legal scholars on the issue of objectivity of law. The main objective of this book is to investigate whether there are any firm criteria in the legal theory, any indisputable truths in the legal dogmatic, any preconditions of predictable and stable law-enforcement practice. Legal theorists consider their discipline as an objective endeavor in line with other fields of science. Objectivity in science is generally regarded as a fundamental condition, informing how science should be practiced and how truth can be found. Objective scientists venture to uncover empirical truths about the world and ought to eliminate personal biases, prior commitments and emotional involvement. However, legal theorists are inevitably bound up with a given legal culture. Consequently, their scholarly work derives at least in part from this environment and their subtle interaction with it. The analyzed book questions critically, in novel ways and from various perspectives, the possibilities of objectivity of legal theory in the twenty-first century. It transpires that legal theory is unavoidably confronted with varying conceptions of law, underlying ideologies, approaches to legal method, argumentation and discourse, which limit the possibilities of ‘objectivity’ in law and legal reasoning. The reviewed book reveals some of these underlying notions and discusses their consequences for legal theory. In the author’s opinion, this book is an important contribution to the debates about objectivity of law both in the world of legal science and in the Russian jurisprudence.
The paper deals with the creative works of an outstanding German philosopher-anthropologist Helmut Plessner. He addresses to an existential structure of individuality as to a social existence and considers it as the carrier of roles. He proves that social identification is based on the idea of the person possessing a social role, but not defined by it. Plessner starts with the idea of a duality of the role relation in which the performer identifies himself. Such identification appears as the only condition in the basic relation of a social role and a human nature. On this basis in the structure of duality of the human existence, a role connecting the carrier and its figure, Plessner finds a constant of sociality. Plessner addresses to an ontologic structure of the person, an eccentric pozitionality, within social subject and defines it as “duality structure in which the carrier of a role and a figure of a role are connected”. Plessner believes that what we find exactly in this structure is "a constant" which is the condition of “human generalization”, and considers it in a quality of “the unique constant in the basic relation of a social role and a human nature”.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.