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  • Экономический кризис и предпринимательская активность населения России: открывать свое дело или выходить из бизнеса?

Article

Экономический кризис и предпринимательская активность населения России: открывать свое дело или выходить из бизнеса?

Алимова Т. А., Ченина А. В., Чепуренко А. Ю.

The study is based on the GEM Russia Adult Population Survey (APS) 2006-2009 data sets. The APS survey in Russia is steadily based on the nationwide, multi-stage, stratified and probability sample (N=2000) that represents the entire adult population older than 18 years. The sample design is based on the Census 2002 data revised by the data of Rosstat (Russian Government Statistical Committee) on January 1st, 2009. To collect data, face-to-face interviewing is used. GEM estimates the level of involvement in early-stage entrepreneurial activity by calculating the sum of nascent entrepreneurs and new business owners. The GEM methodology is briefly characterized on the project website (www.gemconsortium.org).
The crisis in Russia lead to an increase of the role of economic reasons of business discontinuation, but most of former entrepreneurs who discontinued a business from economic reasons will in mid-term perspective try to (re)start anew, in contrast to those who would never try it once more; most of the latter group are escaping from other than economic reasons. They would hardly re-start again under any macroeconomic conditions. From this point of view, the crisis influenced the entrepreneurial potential only temporary.
Meanwhile, this temporary effect was rather strong - the intensity of business discontinuation under the crisis grew compared with previous years, and the difference between entries and exits became negative.
Persons with entrepreneurial past, who quit a business forever, form a ‘big loss’ of entrepreneurial potential because of their experience and skills. The factors which play a role in deciding whether to (re)start again or not, are gender and education: men and persons with higher education are more often considering a possible entrepreneurial comeback, while women and respondents with lower level of education tend more often to escape from business definitively.
Besides, there are subjective factors - negative perceptions of opportunities to do a business and low self-efficacy - which play an important role preventing a significant part of former entrepreneurs to start up anew.
The crisis have had a negative impact on the motivation to start-up among non-entrepreneurial part of population; however, the share of necessity driven should didn’t become higher than the share of opportunity driven potential entrepreneurs – maybe, because of a relatively moderate impact of the crisis on the situation on labour market.
The crisis in Russia did lead neither to a deterioration of motivational structure of early entrepreneurship nor to any dramatic increase of those who entirely resigned as entrepreneurs. That is why efficient government policy to promote entrepreneurship should encourage adults both to start-ups by promoting skills and self-efficacy (to increase the share of opportunity entrepreneurs) as well as to ease the process of closing down inefficient existing businesses.