Поляризация социально-экономического пространства в регионах староосвоенного Центра России: пример Ярославской области
In this article, we consider the polarization and shrinkage in the space of the early developed regions of central Russia, outside Moscow Region. The areas feature a rich cultural and industrial heritage and a long history of economic development. The main focuses are to identify the prerequisites and socio-economic consequences of spatial polarization and to understand to what extent these are influenced by the legacies of the past. We describe
the evolution of economic development in the old industrial regions of central Russia, the features of Soviet industrialization in cities and the unification of rural areas, and post-Soviet economic transformations. We then analyze in detail the key processes of the last decades: industrial concentration, the compression of agricultural production, changes in settlement arrangements, and modern migration. The study is based on the historical literature, regional and municipal statistical data, and field research in the municipal districts of the Yaroslavl Oblast which was chosen as a representative region. We show that regional centers continue expanding, bolstered by the modernization and redevelopment of old industrial sites, the creation of new industrial parks and post-industrial enterprises.
Small cities are losing population, although they may feature different developmental paths determined by a wide range of factors, from geographical location to the richness of their cultural heritage and the presence of active residents. The polarization of rural areas is reflected in the growing contrasts between highly populated suburbs and the periphery, where the rural population is rapidly declining and agricultural land deteriorates. This trend represents a continuity with the Soviet organization of space. The revival of agriculture is characteristic of only of a few areas that feature favorable natural conditions and is based on the emergence of new modernized enterprises. We discuss the contradiction between modernization, the polarization of active space and the use of historical heritage. Special attention is paid to the role of human potential in the emergence of local growth points. In conclusion, we consider the possibilities of not only the reproduction and modernization of previous types of development, but also the emergence of new functions, including recreational landscape-cultural and seasonal dacha development.