Исследование транзитивности самооценок мотивации
Measurement in social sciences implies that the measured feature is quantitative, or
in other words that it is possible not only to arrange the values of any given attribute, but also
to express the difference between ordered magnitudes using a certain unit of measurement.
However the need to verify this basic assumption is often ignored. And though there are a few
possible excuses for this, but fundamentally this neglect distracts the social sciences from its
main task of exploring reality. In this work, one of the requirements for the ordinal structure
of motives was checked, namely the requirement of transitivity: if a > b and b > c, then a >
If transitivity is not observed, then motives cannot be evaluated even on an ordinal scale
(“more – less”, “stronger – weaker”), not to mention their quantitative measurement,
which all methods that use Likert scales are supposedly tailored to. On a sample of 250
students, it was shown that about half of the respondents established transitivity when
arranging their motives (internal, external and social ones), which justifies the use of ordinal
scales for motivation assessment, at least for these motives and for two values: “more” and
“less”; however, even in these cases, further validation of the assumptions about additivity
when it comes to measuring motives is required to justify the use of Likert scales. The other
part of the respondents (about 40%) could neither distinguish nor arrange their motives,
therefore not only measuring, but even defining the order of their motives in these cases
is impossible. It is concluded that the transitivity error is associated with the individual
characteristics of the respondents and requires further study as a systematic error.
The present study aims to identify the relationship between intellectual abilities and the motives of occupational choice. Results of the study suggest what motives of occupational choice related to the level of certain intellectual abilities. So, for example, the negative connection between the level of mathematical abilities and the “career”, “confidence” and “authority” motives were found. The level of the “formallogic” ability is negatively related to the “joining”, “confidence” and “public benefit” motives. Most of the identified interrelations are negative. In particular, it was shown that respondents with the lower levels of intellectual abilities assessed the importance of majority motives much higher than respondents with the higher levels of various abilities in our sample. A new method intended to identify different motives of occupational choice was developed during this work. According to its results the factor structure of occupational choice motives has been obtained.
A global focusing on a sustainable economy requires redirection of corporate governance toward sustainability. One of the important ways for management is a quality management as it is focused on continuous improvement of all business processes and therefore – contribute to long-term performance. The basic problems in this case are the searching for the most effective organizational model of quality achievement and the reasons for firm to implement quality management system (QMS) which is relevant to its sustainable business perspective. Insufficiency of the problem development of companies’ stimulation to implement QMS ISO 9000, make the paper urgent. The purpose of the study is an examination of the motivation for QMS ISO 9000 implementation for the emerging economies firms. The informational base of empirical cross country analysis was 2002–2009 data of Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) of WB and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Study targets are the firms, which have implemented QMS ISO 9000 and located in the three groups of countries: the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), new members of the EU countries and countries of the Southern Europe - not EU members. The main finding is the identification of similarities and differences in motivations of firms from the tree groups emerging economies, which has implemented QMS ISO 9000.
The present article contains an analysis of problems typical of scientific direction of Ph. D. studies. These problems include: financial and career motivation of scientific advisors (instead of scientific goals), insufficient understanding of functions that a scientific advisor must fulfill and lack of competence. Solutions of these problems are proposed.
In my article, I address the factors which favor using a verb as labile (both transitive and intransitive, with no formal change required).
Haspelmath (1993) proposes that the key feature which conditions a way of marking (in)transitivity of verbs in the transitive / intransitive verb pair is the spontaneity parameter.
However, the statistical analysis of Haspelmath’s data shows that for labile / ambitransitive verb the main parameter is the lexical semantic class of the verb, not the degree of spontaneity. This lets us discover a more general principle: phenomena which are not purely grammatical, but rather lexico-grammatical (as lability) depend on lexical features, not on generalized grammatical or semantic parameters.
The first part of this book is devoted to the old problem of fundamental motivations that can hardly be approached in another way, other than theoretically. The second part of the book is devoted to new or rather marginal concepts that seem capable to enrich general models of motivational processes. Part three of the book deals with the issues of self-regulation and self-determination; in the last two decades the problems of motivation can be hardly dealt with without touching these issues. The focus of the last part of the book is cultural context and cultural mediation of motivation. This book was planned not as a collection of discoveries to be considered, but rather as a collection of nontrivial views that may turn helpful for making a better sense of the discoveries actually made. (Imprint: Nova)
The paper looks into the contemporary state of the problem of decision-making and preference of some alternatives over others, discussing intransitivity of relations of superiority: one object is superior to another in a certain aspect, while the second is superior to the third and the third is superior to the first (A>B, B>C, C>A). The authors analyze two broad groups of theories and empirical studies reflecting opposite views on the nature of the relations and rationality of intransitivity of relations of superiority. The authors argue that understanding of intransitivity of superiority relations is no less important line of cognitive development than understanding of transitivity; they should be studied as complementary subjects. Thus it is necessary to study individual differences in cognitive sets with regard to transitivity/intransitivity of superiority, as well as individual characteristics of solving problems of that kind.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.