Инклюзивные и эксклюзивные идентичности и контакты: роль ценностей и статуса этнической группы
Background. Identity and contacts are often studied from the perspective of inherent conflict potential for intergroup relations leading to prejudice and exclusion in societies which include groups with different ethnic status. Nonetheless, there are still certain identification and interaction mechanisms that can potentially mitigate or negate these harmful effects. These include inclusive contacts and identities, in particular the positive inclusive identities, which allow to unite representatives of different groups. However, what determines these identities and contacts? Schwartz's theory of individual values has great potential to explain the personality determinants of identities positivity and the intensity of contacts.
Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the role of individual values and status of ethnic group in assessing the positivity of exclusive and inclusive identities, as well as in the intensity of exclusive and inclusive contacts among members of the ethnic majority and minority groups.
Design. The study was conducted on a sample of an ethnic minority (Russians living in the North Caucasus) and on a sample of an ethnic majority (Russians living in Moscow). The total sample size is= 499 respondents from 15 to 60 years old, mean age is 32 years. The individual values were measured using a portrait value questionnaire - PVQ-R (Schwartz et al., 2012); positivity of ethnic identity, positivity of civic identity, positivity of regional identity, intercultural contacts, monocultural contacts were measured using the appropriate methods from the questionnaire of the MIRIPS project (Mutual intercultural relations in plural societies) (Berry, 2017).
Results. The study found that (1) values of Conservation underlie the positivity of exclusive ethnic and inclusive civic identities among members of the ethnic majority, (2) values of Openness to Change underlie exclusive monocultural contacts among ethnic minority and majority members, (3) values of Self-Enhancement underlie inclusive intercultural contacts among members of the ethnic minority/
Conclusion. The results of this study revealed the motivational foundations of exclusive monocultural and inclusive intercultural friendship, which were based on the values of personal focus among the Russian ethnic minority and majority members. At the same time, the values of social focus turned out to underlie the positivity of the exclusive ethnic Russian and inclusive civic Russian identity among the ethnic Russian majority members. The research results have a wide potential for further theoretical and practical application in the field of intercultural relations and their harmonization.