T The paper researches the possibilities and limitations of coping behaviour in children and adolescents on the Internet and the assistance of significant adults (parental mediation) in the context of the new social situation of development mediated by modern information and communication technologies, in particular, by the Internet. The study based on the EUKidsOnline II project was conducted in 11 regions of 7 federal districts of Russia (1025 “parent-child” pairs). According to the research results the most common risks include dealing with negative sexual content, fraud and identity theft, meetings with online friends. Features of experiences and coping with risks online depend on the adolescent dominating activity on the web: those focused on their studies are less exposed to the risks mentioned, whereas their feelings are deeper and more enduring, they more frequently seek solutions using passive strategies. Those who fall into “content consumers” category are most exposed to the risk of coming across sexual content on the web as actively use various Internet resources including search engines. They experience fewer negative emotions, more frequently they actively seek to solve the problem almost without offline support. The opportunity of parental mediation at the present moment is rather insignificant: a strategy of prohibitions associated with reduction of collision risks especially for research of teenagers; while the strategy of positive reinforcement and explanation is used effectively with adolescents doing various things on the Internet, it can be associated with a more realistic risk assessment and child using active coping strategies and social support. According to the data received the Internet could be considered as a complex psychological “instrument” that is internalizing by the child in his/her development. This internalization process determines his/her activities and selfregulation including his/her aptitude to coping with difficult life situations.
The paper considers social perceptual representations of mother in children. The social perceptive image of mother is associated with a certain attitude, and, consequently, determines the willingness to act in a certain way, the willingness to implement a certain strategy of relationships. The paper presents the results of a large-scale empirical study comprising 7000 high school students. The sample can be considered quite representative with all necessary parameters, including respondents from big cities and small towns and villages of Russia, complete and incomplete families, families with 1-2 children and large ones. The results of the study in the general sample show that the social perceptual portrait of the mother compises only positive qualities, and does not contain any negative descriptor. In addition, a high level of concordance (coherence, unanimity) in the perception and assessment of the mother’s respondents was revealed. A comparative analysis is carried out of the mother’s image in the minds of young men and women, in the minds of respondents from complete and incomplete families, from urban and rural families, from families with one or two children and from large families, from large families with many children and many children with many children. As a general trend, the social perceptual portrait of the mother in all groups remains positive. However, certain differences are also found in some changes in most significant qualities. Summing up, differences are also found in the level of concordance of the respondents’ choice in specific groups that differ in gender or social features.
The article features a new technique of work motivation diagnostics based on the new developed concept of motivational task. A motivational task is a tool for self-appraisal of the field of motivational objects allowing further reconstruction of motivational space. The conditions of the motivational task resolution have been implemented in the diagnostic procedure “Motivational Map”. The diagnostics procedure consists in multiple visual appraisal of 16 motivational objects (J.Nuttin) within a dimensional graphic space determined by 6 evaluation scales. To indicate the geometric patterns that reflect the relationship between motivational objects used the term subjective motivation space, based on the definition of subjective psychological space in modern models of multidimensional scaling. Conditions of motivational tasks are: ranking of motivational objects, determination of the subjective center of motivational space, multiple comparative evaluation of motivational objects, successive refinement of estimates motivational objects, adjusting the motivational space with a view of placing high priority motivational object. Approbation of new assesment technique was conducted on a sample of 206 financial specialists and included two series - test and retest. Collected results were compared with the scores received with the help of standard questionnaires. The construct validity of the methodology was assessed by means of the regression analysis. The scales used in the standard methodologies of work motivation assessment served as the independent variables, while the parameters registered by the developed methodology served as the dependent variables. In the course of validity analysis 32 highly important regression models were established. The results of psychometric verification of validity and reliability are presented in the article.
The article presents results of the study focused on the work motivation dynamics. Participants were candidates for the job, accepted on probation in finance company. The influence of the motivational object "Money" on the motivational space before and after job placement, an attempt to operationalize situational and temporal stability of work motivation are presented. The study was conducted using method of "Motivational map", based on the motivational task procedure (Strizhova, Gusev, 2013). Motivational task is a tool for consistent reflection of the field of motivational objects allowing further reconstruction of individual motivational space. It was confirmed that material stimulation has a significant impact on more parameters of motivational space before job placement than after job placement. Situational stability of work motivation was assessed by correlation between coordinates of 15 motivational objects obtained in the two steps of motivational task. At the first step participant assessed 15 motivational objects in the graphic space of evaluation scales. At the second step participant placed motivational object "Money" among already evaluated 15 motivational objects, which could be reevaluated after it. Temporal stability was assessed by correlations between the same parameters of motivational space before and after job placement. The research results helped to assume that situational and temporal stability of motivation could be the factors of individual differences.
Background. The authors of the paper enquire how the continuity and maintenance of social identity is carried out from generation to generation. Particular attention is drawn to the memory of the traumatic past of the group, such as repression and deportation, as they contradict the widespread view of social identity as a tool for achieving positive individual self-esteem based on a positive image of the group. The paper assumes that cultural memory being a link between the past, the present and the future of the social group ensures the continuity of social identity. Identity that includes the comprehension and experience of the negative past of the group is also considered.
Objective. The objective of this study is to justify the role of cultural memory as the basis of identification with the group and an empirical test of the relationship between the two constructs.
Design. A written questionnaire was offered to 296 people aged between 17 and 70 (M = 26.22, SD = 10.0) who identified themselves as Ingush. The respondents answered questions about their social identity (ethnic, civil and religious), assessed their experiences related to the deportation fact, and substantively argued the need to preserve the cultural memory of the deportation.
Conclusion. The data obtained show that the extent of identity within the group is positively correlated with the extent of the deportation experience, although these experiences are by no means positive (anger, insult, humiliation, heart pain, etc.), and also with the frequency of recalling the fact of deportation and desire to learn more about this event. The obtained results confirm the suggested assumption about the role of cultural memory and allow to develop further research on clarifying the relationship between cultural memory and social identity, assessing the impact of such additional factors as group emotions, psychological well-being, etc
Celebrating the 115th anniversary birth of P.Ya. Galperin, an outstanding Russian scientist, and paying tribute to his contribution in general psychology, genetic psychology and teacher-training psychology, it is necessary to emphasize Galperin’s unique approach to the essence of mental phenomena and processes, to the mechanisms and development that reverberate the internal integrity and systemic approach. There are at least, three main directions of P.Ya. Galperin’s concept, i.e. his system of psychology. The first direction is the method of gradual development of intellectual activity for studying human mental activity. The second direction is the study of the theoretically described and actually implemented process of gradual development of intellectual activity as a psychological reality. The third direction is the gradual development of intellectual activity in the practice of teaching. This paper is devoted to the strategic issues of implementing gradual development of intellectual activity. The significance of these assumptions for practical training, not in a laboratory experiment, but in the mass version, paradoxically requires a far deeper and broader understanding of mechanisms of the human mental activity than academic laboratory research. The reasons for the relatively limited use of Galperin’s theory are considered in the practice of training. Further development of psychology along the path outlined by P.Ya. Galperin aimed at enhancing practical capabilities of the theoretical approach is being highlighted.
The paper presents the results of the psychological research on interaction of mothers with preschool children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire of Parent-Child Emotional Interaction by E.I. Zakharova and a Scale of Child Rejection Degree by A.I. Barkan are used in the empirical study. The basic idea of the scientific research is optimization of emotional interacting of mothers with preschool children who have intellectual disabilities by means of psychological training which is aimed at developing emotional-sensual, empathy-behavioural and cognitive-reflective components of parenthood. The data mentioned above describe the emotional side of mother’s interaction with the child as a disjunction, i.e. most of the mothers manifest low sensitivity to the condition and needs of the child, lack of understanding the causes of child behaviour, inability to empathize to the child when he/she is in a predicament. In order to improve mothers’ understanding of their own children, characteristics and regularities of child development, to enhance the ability to understand the experiences, states and interests of the child, to change attitudes of parents to the child and themselves a training program has been implemented. The results of the control phase of the experiment conducted show the positive effect of group work on peculiarities of parent-child emotional interaction. The number of mothers who are able to understand the reasons for the child’s moods, sympathize with child, set him/her calm attitude increased. Mothers’ impression that they are controlling the development of their child has appeared. Mothers were more likely to seek physical contact with a child. A larger number of mothers began to provide emotional support to their children and to take into account the mood and interests of the child in leisure activities planning.
The paper highlights the relation between the relevance of coping behaviour and increasing interest to phenomena of uncertainty. The reviewing of coping as complicated setting notion including several levels is offered. The relevance of studying conscious and unconscious levels of coping is validated. Using coping questionnaires’ deficit of prognosis validity and the relevancy of using projective methods that are effective and useful in diagnostics of coping’ unconscious components are discussed. Due to the changes in viewing difficult life situations’ range and focusing on subjective perception of difficulties, the frustration situations are reviewed as difficult daily life situations. The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test could be used for diagnosing coping’ unconscious components that compose meaning set level and coping behaviour basis. The relations among personal characteristics (tolerance/intolerance to uncertainty, noetic orientations, personal anxiety, locus of control) and three types and three directions of subjects’ responses in test’ situations were examined, generalized linear models were used. The subjects of the research are 199 teachers from secondary schools of Russian Federation, mean age is 40.6 years old. The results showed significant relations between particular personal characteristics and types and directions of the responses: ego-defense type and tolerance to uncertainty, obstacle-dominance type and personal anxiety, intropunitive direction and personal anxiety, obstacledominance type and noetic orientations. The common discussion of current results and results obtained in previous studies demonstrates potential existence of mediating relations between particular coping strategies and types and directions of subjects’ responses in The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test.
Background. The issue of preventing antisocial behavior in the juvenile is relevant nowadays as delinquent, unlawful behaviour in children and adolescents is a powerful risk factor of asocial development of the personality on the whole, and also the factor that negatively affects their entire future.
The Objective is to analyze the causes and consequences of the asocial development in children and adolescents, to consider theoretical studies devoted to the prevention of antisocial behaviour and juvenile delinquency, neglected and homeless children and adolescents, and their rehabilitation and resocialization.
Design. The paper studies the issue of adolescent aggression in modern Russian society. The paper recites a wide range of foreign and Russian research, analyses regulatory and legal documents and regional practices, and also employs the data of the author’s survey of Russian adolescents conducted in 2017.
Research results. Family reshaping in terms of psychology and relationship between family members have a direct effect on deviant or antisocial behaviour in adolescents. A significant negative correlation between the school climate and the aggressiveness of schoolchildren was revealed. High positive intercorrelations within the indicators of the school climate were found to be high: school safety and teacher-student relations. Children who are not involved in bullying, assess the climate and school safety significantly higher than the children who are bullied. This pattern is typical for all participants in the persecution, regardless of their role, i.e. the victim, the aggressor or the observer.
Conclusion. Based on the data reviewed, the recommendations given can be taken into account when establishing the state policy on preventing antisocial behaviour and the aggression in the juvenile. The significance of the joint school and family measures that can be an effective tool for preventing teenage aggression is drawn special attention to
Background The issue of antisocial behaviour and adolescent aggressiveness are usually studied from the perspective of family psychological well-being. Social and economic inequality of contemporary families are important factors of cultural and historical context of the of modern adolescents’ developmental situation. Objective The paper provides an attempt of articulating the theoretical basis of adolescents’ aggression, i.e. family SES analysis. The paper is also dedicated to the research of differences in adolescents’ aggression indicators within gender- and family SES- groups spectrum. Design The research was conducted as an online survey in the public schools of Russian Federation. The present sample consisted of 883 respondents (59% were females, 41% were males). The average age was 16 years. Adolescents’ aggression was assessed by the short version of Buss-Durkey Inventory. Statistical analysis methods included Kruskall-Wallis test, T-test, Mann-Whitney test and factor analysis (maximum likelihood). Results. The study revealed that differences in aggression indicators are mainly reflected in the subjective aspects of aggression (resentment and guilt), and also a general indicator of aggression depending on the socio-economic status of the family. Different levels of preparedness for physical aggression are shown by respondents from families in which only the father or only the mother works. Both females and males are prone to various manifestations of aggressiveness. Differences in indicators of aggression in the context of cultural capital and the socio-economic status of the family are reflected mainly in the subjective aspects of aggression. Conclusion. Statistically speaking, the differences obtained are quite significant, but from an absolute point of view they are extremely small. The indicators of socioeconomic well-being of a family are related to adolescent aggression indirectly, with psychological characteristics being the key point. Specific features of the relationship between parents and the child, features of educational practices preferred by parents, features of family organization, etc. Economic well-being appear only a condition that facilitates or, conversely, complicates the implementation of educational practices adopted in the family. The major role belongs to the activity of both parents and children. A further research is required to verify the latter.
The interdisciplinary approach in studies of identity has to employ methods that allow to study and compare the prognostic value of diagnostic criteria of identification which are suggested within the line of various concepts. The objective of this research is to study the steadiness and correlation of identification values according to a number of criteria, and also their relationship to subjective well-being, coping strategies, and also the severity of psychopathology symptoms in subjects without mental illness. The method of “Who Am I?” by M. Kuhn and T. McPartland was completed by a quantitative Likert scale to which extent each identity is liked (emotional evaluation), is often actualized (significance), is important for the subject (psychological centrality), and is recognized by others (perceived social recognition). The two samples, psychology students (n1=82) and adult subjects (n2=50), show sufficient consistency of identification values, impossibility to interchange the criteria, and the possibility of reliable calculation of a single indicator coherence/incoherence in evaluations identifications. Positive assessment, psychological centrality and awareness of their identities more often contribute to choosing active behavioural and cognitive coping strategies. The additional consideration of consistency in values results in better prediction of the inclination to positive reformulation, appeal to religion and focus on emotions. Relationship of the importance of identification and depression was mediated by the emotional assessment: frequent thoughts about identification prevented depression only in the subjects with positive emotional evaluation of identity. In general, the use of quantitative assessment allows us to complete the qualitative analysis of identifications by general indicators of subjective experience of identity.
Conducted in recent years Russian population studies of the Internet use by children show that the rapid skills development in children and adolescents is associated with a lack of awareness of the risks and dangers of the digital world, and also the possibilities of coping with them. The paper offers psychological models of digital competence in children and adults including four components: knowledge, skills, motivation, responsibility, as well as types of digital competence, i.e. media competence, communicative competence, technical competence, and consumer competence. The paper performs the results of the development and methods validation of screening diagnosis index of digital competence according to population-based study on a representative sample of Russian 12-17 year-olders (N = 1203) and parents of adolescents in this age group (N = 1209) conducted by the Foundation for Internet Development and the Department of Psychology, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia with Google support. Reliability-consistency scales of the knowledge skills and responsibility was sufficient (0.72-0.90) with inhomogeneity of motivation scale. The confirmatory factor analysis proved the compliance of the 4-component index model to the empirical data. To verify the validity of the criteria we used the four tests assessing the respondents’ knowledge and skills in the areas of content, communication, technosphere and consumption sphere. The overall level of digital competence was for parents, 31 per cent from of the highest possible level, and for adolescents, the level was 34 per cent, with particular decline in motivation (20 per cent and 20 per cent respectively), which indicates the necessaity for motivating and informing educational programs in this area.