Попытка демократического прорыва: взлеты и падения Государственной Думы первого созыва (1993-1995г.г.) (к 30-летию Российской Федерации). Часть I
The first part of the article, devoted to the history of the Fifth State Duma of the Russian Federation, examines the main problems of historiography of the early stage of modern Russian parliamentary and shows the reasons and main
directions of discussions on the activities of the State Duma of the first convocation. The authors, giving a brief overview of the existing literature (including memoirs), determine not only the reference points of the discussion (first of all, between the supporters of the institutional and strategic approaches), but also record the level of agreement reached in the study of this phenomenon and the presence of research gaps.
The authors of the article not only reconstruct the course of the election campaign in the fall of 1993 and the balance of power, but also analyze the existing explanatory models of the relative failure (at least, this is how the election results were evaluated by the presidential team and supporters of the reformist path of development of the new Russia) of the democratic forces. Defining the political context of the 1993 parliamentary elections as a confrontation between reformist-democratic and anti-reformist, traditionalist electoral associations, the authors believe that the balance of power to a certain extent reflected the ideological and political preferences prevalent in the politically unstructured Russian society at that time. At the same time, it is doubtful whether the “Choice of Russia” can be attributed to the prototype of the “party of power”. Rather, this prototype corresponded to the PRES created by S. Shakhrai with the support of federal and regional officials in order to support the current government. It is possible
to argue about how realistic it was to have a solid reformist majority in the State Duma, but it is obvious that a significant role in the election results and in the further development of the political process was played by the distancing of Boris Yeltsin and the majority of his team from all participants in the electoral process, including the “Choice of Russia”, who supported the current government.