This article studies challenges and threats in post-industrial development of the civilization. Information challenges include information inequality between countries and regions; information stratification of society; cybercrime; cyberwarfare; difficulty in protection of intellectual property rights, copyright and related rights; increased information and communication threats to privacy; advanced technological capabilities for information manipulation of public opinion. There is a rise in environmental threats, including air pollution and climate change. In future, revolutionary changes in biotechnology and genetic engineering can lead to the social problem of vital inequality causing stratification by the quality of life. Migration as an integral part of globalization brings about new issues of inter-ethnic, inter-confessional and inter-cultural exchange. The rise of Islamism plays an important role in the actualization of this trend. Religious radicalism, of Islamic or any other kind, contributes to the development of terrorism and destruction of internal stability of modern societies. The main political threats of post-industrial transit are separatism, which endangers the stability of public authorities and integrity of the country, and modern terrorism, most common ideological ground of which is religious extremism of Islamic type. Threats and challenges of postindustrial transit bring up the question of whether they can be successfully overcome under the conditions of post-Fordist model of capitalism and whether it can be preserved as the economic basis of the planetary civilization.
The epoch after the Decembrist uprising is notorious for the intensive search of Russia in political, economic and social spheres of life as well as in cultural and spiritual identity. In Russia many representatives of philosophical thought disputed over the question, if Russia had a propensity for East or West, otherwise it was distinctive. The problem of Russia`s identification still be urgent at the present time, and it can be examined through the different methods, including the Insitutional Matrices Theory.