A multinational study exploring adolescent perception of school climate and mental health
School climate is a topic of increasing importance internationally. The current study investigated the established measurement invariance of an eight-factor school climate scale using a multinational sample of secondary students. School climate factor means across 14 international groups were compared and findings on the association between school climate factors and mental health were also investigated. Findings, from this study, illustrate several cross-national similarities regarding the ways in which secondary students perceive school climate and the influence of school climate on student mental health. These findings can support school psychologists’ efforts to identify strategies and supports that improve the school environment in areas that are most consistently related to student experiences, such as school safety and school connectedness. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
In recent years, many countries have begun to pay more attention to the results of comparative international studies in education, for example, TIMSS, PIRLS, and PISA. In addition to international comparisons of students' outcomes, the issue of within-country differences in students’ results and access to educational resources is becoming increasingly relevant. Such within-country comparisons became possible in 2019 when the last data of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) arrived.,. In this regard Russia, as a country with a large territory and great social, economic and language diversity, might become an interesting case to examine. The research focus will be on the regional differences not only in students' results in reading, mathematics, and science, but also in their access to educational resources controlling their socio-economic and school context that is traditionally associated by researchers with higher students’ performance.
This paper examines the concept of spatial heterogeneity using the data of two Russian regions – Moscow Region and the Tatarstan republic. We compare the estimates for the relationship of students' PISA results with their personal, family and school characteristics, analyzing regional differences in share of variation in PISA performance, explained by these predictors.
Thus, regional inequality in PISA results is observed in all three subjects – mathematics, reading, and sciences. Moreover, the gap in the average scores of students in the Moscow region and the Republic of Tatarstan corresponds to almost five months, or a half-year of studying. This level of regional differences exceeds the international one. Large and significant differences are observed in the family and school characteristics. The contribution of these predictors to students’ achievements also vary among regions. This is an important point for educational policy which shows that the effectiveness of decisions can also vary depending on the territory.
Topical issues on early childhood mental health are considered in the article. There is a high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in early childhood and increase in mental disorders among children in general, which is ahead of a similar increase among adults. At the same time, unjustifiably on children’s mental health little attention is being paid, specialty “children’s psychiatrist” is not reestablished, the number of specialized beds is reduced etc. The data on the frowth of severe mental disorders (endogenous psychoses of the autism group) beginning in early and pre-school age.
The article is dedicated to the analysis of school and family factors’ correlation with adolescent’s aggressiveness. Parental education and financial status of family were used as indicators of socio-economic wellbeing. School climate parameters were measured as relevant school characteristics. Multiple significant correlations of school climate and adolescent’s aggressiveness were found. Significant differences in the level of aggressiveness between groups of respondents with various rates of socio-economic wellbeing were also detected.
Competent international organizations are greatly concerned with the prevalence of aggressive behaviors of children in Russia. This paper addresses the frequency and types of school violence in present day Russia. Our sociological study has confirmed that violence is embedded in the country’s cultural patterns and can be found in all the components of school life. The study has provided evidence that violent behaviors are prone to change over time and depend on the school culture, and, along with other factors, the social capital of the family and the kind of information and communication the children are exposed to determine what forms the aggressive behavior of children takes.
This publication presents Russia results in PISA 2018. It also shows the dynamics of PISA scores in the 2000-s. The changes in different types of reading skills are presented as well as the proportion of functionally illiterate students. Besides the scores, the data that describes schools climate, including attitude to school, bullying, discipline in class, are analysed. Some issues related to the provision of schools with resources are being addressed.In addition, the social and territorial inequality of educational outcomes in Russia is described. In particular, PISA 2018 allows us to compare the results of the Moscow region and the Republic of Tatarstan with the average scores in the country. Based on the analysis, authots make basic hypothesis about possible changes in Russian education that can be associated with Russia results in PISA. At the end, the publication proposes some steps that could help to improve educational outcomes of Russian students. The publication will be interesting to a wide audience of specialists engaged in educational policy and practice, as well as to researchers of educational inequality and education quality factors.
School climate is a significant factor of educational achievement. However, relevant research in Russia is difficult due to the absence of instruments. The paper peeks into the history of the notion of school climate, discussing approaches to defining the term. It also describes the most widespread questionnaires used to measure school climate and provides an analysis of their components. The empirical study is based on the student questionnaire used by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which should ideally allow measuring a number of school climate aspects. A psychometric analysis based on the methods of confirmatory factor analysis and modern test theory reveals that the structure of school climate indices is different from what questionnaire designers expected it to be. It can not be clearly determined whether the questions reflect the school climate indicators that the questionnaires were supposed to measure. Some statements are worded in such a way that most school students should either agree or disagree with them, without showing any difference in their attitude toward the subject. The scale is unbalanced for the majority of items. The article suggests making some specific steps to improve this instrument
main characteristics of school bullying prevalence in Russia and other countries in the world are discussed in the following paper, as well as classification of bullying roles, bullying consequences and family and school factors of victimisation. The results of the study of school bullying conducted by the Laboratory for Prevention of Asocial Behaviour of the Institute of Education (HSE) on the sample of 891 high-school students, living in 5 Federal districts offRussia are given. According to these results the prevalence of school bullying in Russia is high (75% of the sample have faced any type of bullying in the position of a victim or a bystander at least once in two months before the research). Among the main correlates of school bullying prevalence gender, GPA, socio-economical characteristics of student’s family and factors of school climate are considered.
The collection of scientific papers is collected from different areas of scientific knowledge, including general medicine, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychology, social policy, education, law, economics and sport. The publication contains materials that were delivered to the Organizing Committee of the Congress on Mental Health: Meeting the Needs of the XXI Century. The collection is intended for researchers and practitioners acting in the field of the mental health care.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.