Труд творческих работников: социологическая концептуализация
This article examines critical creative labour studies (CCLS) as a theoretical tradition. The article is divided into three main sections. The first section provides an excursion into earlier than CCLS studies on the sociology of art, which formed the specific industrial logic of the view of culture and its producers (R. Peterson, G. Becker, N. Enick, P. Bourdieu). The second section presents the main provisions of critical research of creative work, considers the context of their emergence of this direction (A. Macrobie, D. Hezmondalsh, R. Gill, M. Banks, etc.). Finally, in the third section, the question of the applicability of this research paradigm to the Russian context is considered, methodological recommendations are given for conducting such studies.
As public institutions that serve society by conserving and communicating the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity, museums aim to provide opportunities for social groups to engage with their unique collections and gain ‘unforgettable’ experiences (López-Sintas et al., 2012). As with many other cultural institutions, museums are highly dependent on national histories, traditions and funding, and vary widely by organizational structure, audiences and exhibits.
Despite the fact that culture, aesthetics, and art were some of the main concerns of early classical sociology (e.g., Simmel’s essays are probably the most popular reference in this regard), later culture has become a matter of interest of a sub-discipline, that of the sociology of culture. The end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries brought a radical transformation of sociological understanding of culture, and it was Jeffrey Alexander who revived the notion and proposed a new understanding of sociological theory drawn on this notion. According to Alexander, culture should be treated as an autonomous realm being able to act and contribute to the social order. In (re)turning to this understanding, Alexander draws upon a variety of now-classical theories, but mainly on Durkheim’s theory of religion as explicated in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Clifford Geertz and his idea of thick description is one of the sources for the renewed cultural sociology. In Art as a Cultural System (1976), he wrote that “to study an art form is to explore a sensibility” and “such a sensibility is essentially a collective formation, and that the foundations of such a formation are as wide as social existence and as deep”. The special issue of the RSR is dedicated to empirical and theoretical discussion of how art can serve as a source of sociological imagination.
The article defines the concept, structure and contents of the intellectual potential of society and specifies the limits of the information space in which various crimes infringe on this potential. It also outlines the range of the said crimes and describes ways to enhance the efficiency of criminal law to counteract them. The author emphasizes the role of university scholarship in augmenting the aforementioned potential and in the innovative development of economy, as well as in the protection of creative workers' rights and lawful interests.
During the last two decades a lot of new cultural institutions have emerged in St. Petersburg. Being both modern cultural centers and spaces for work and living of the “creative class”, such institutions are not only oriented on exhibition and educational activities (lectures, workshops, etc), but also follow entertainment purposes (including cafes, bars, shops). These organizations are similar in forms of institutionalization, in products and in strategies they choose. However, many differences between them can be found. Our aim was to investigate the process of cultural production in St. Petersburg. Our study is based on data, collected by the research group: “Creative city”. The questions we are answering are: (1) what is the aim of these institutions? (2) What are elements of process of cultural production? (3) How can the entertainment projects be mixed with cultural production? What audience do they focus on?