Who owns Sturgeon in the Caspian? New Theoretical Model of Social Responses towards State Conservation Policy
This article explores responses to the implementation of Russian sturgeon conservation policy in three fishing communities (in Dagestan, Kalmykia and the Volga River delta areas), along the Western and Northern coasts of the Caspian Sea. Enforcement of regulatory measures has led to complex socio-cultural responses. We show how social responses to conservation policy generate various forms of poaching. An analytical model of ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ forms of poaching is analyzed against three regulatory measures: introduction of specially designated fishing areas in Russia’s Caspian fisheries, border zone expansion and the ban on sturgeon fishing. We explain why in Kalmykia the policy led people to stop practicing hard forms of sturgeon fishing, while fishermen in Dagestan responded in a more complex manner by displaying resistance towards the new policies.
In this study, we analyse compliance for a large sample of European companies mandatorily applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Focusing on disclosures required by IFRS 3 Business Combinations and International Accounting Standard 36 Impairment of Assets, we find substantial non-compliance. Compliance levels are determined jointly by company- and country-level variables, indicating that accounting traditions and other country-specific factors continue to play a role despite the use of common reporting standards under IFRS. At the company level, we identify the importance of goodwill positions, prior experience with IFRS, type of auditor, the existence of audit committees, the issuance of equity shares or bonds in the reporting period or in the subsequent period, ownership structure and the financial services industry as influential factors. At the country level, the strength of the enforcement system and the size of the national stock market are associated with compliance. Both factors not only directly influence compliance but also moderate and mediate some company-level factors. Finally, national culture in the form of the strength of national traditions (‘conservation’) also influences compliance, in combination with company-level factors.
This paper analyzes opportunities of application of the self-determination theory to the compliant behavior and describes the process of development and validation scale for measuring compliance-related causality orientations in the normative sample. Experts’ appraisals demonstrated that in clinical settings controlled causality orientation could be divided into two subscales: controlled by doctors and controlled by others subscales. Empirical data (N=246 students) supports internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha .76-.79), test-retest reliability and factor validity of the scale. All the subscales correlate with general controlled orientation subscale as well as relevant subscales of General Causality Orientation Scale. Controlled by doctors and impersonal causality orientations were negatively related to health-related quality of life. Compliance-Related Causality Orientations Scale correlated with retrospective appraisals of last episode of somatic illness (subjective interference with other domains, fear of future complications, fear of more severe illness, subjective ability to follow chosen treatment. Although testing prospective validity of the scale is a challenge for future research, the scale could be useful to study motivational factors of compliant behavior both in the normative and clinical samples.
The article examines the stages of the negotiation process on the determination of the Caspian sea legal status, positions of the Russian Federation and the interests of the external actors (USA, EU, China) in the process. At present the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan have reached the consensus on the delimitation of the north part of the Caspian sea while its southern part is still not delimited. The active interaction of the Caspian states with the external actors (USA, EU, China) encourages the Caspian states to strengthen their rights in the Caspian sea which in turn activates the negotiation process on the definition of the Caspian sea legal status.
The proposed ‘Overview’ is a practical tool that should simplify the use of existing standards and guidelines for designing, implementing and evaluating anti-corruption compliance programmes. The Overview considers the principles, standards and recommendations from major international organizations and bodies, including UNODC, World Bank, OECD, ICC, ISO.
Besides of standards and guidelines on anti-corruption compliance, relevant provisions from the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF’s) anti-money laundering/countering financing of terrorism standards and guidelines on identification of third parties, beneficial owners, politically exposed persons (PEPs), risk assessment, and suspicious transactions were taken into account.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.