Отражение особенностей традиционного питания в генофондах народов с лесо-таёжным типом природопользования
The aim was to compare frequencies of genotypes in unrelated populations of boreal zone - the Shors and Komi.
Materials and methods. DNA samples from 95 ethnic Shors and 235 Komi were analyzed. The genes APOE, LCT, TREH, SI, and VDR BsmI, FokI were typed. Information on traditional food composition and the sources of food products was derived from ethnographic literature.
Results and discussion. There were no dinucleotide AG deletions in SI (sucrase-isomaltase) gene in the samples of both study groups. ApoE*ε4 allele frequencies is high in both groups (0.19 Shors, 0.18 Komi). The ApoE allele frequencies and genotype distributions do not differ. The prevalence of CC*LCT genotype is 0.717 in Shors and 0.409 in Komi (p<0,001). That is, 2/3 of adult Shors and 1/3 of Komi cannot digest whole milk. The frequency of A*TREH (a decreased activity of trehalase in phenotype) is 0.51 in Shors and 0.058 in Komi (p=0.0000). The Shors have higher prevalence (p=0.03) of both *C BsmI allele and CC*Fok1 genotype (increased vitamin D sensitivity), and lower proportion of TT*BsmI genotype (p<0.05). The high frequencies of ApoE*ε4 allele and CC*LCT genotype reflect ancient adaptations and high, until recently, contribution of hunting and fishing to the diet. The prevalence of A*TREH allele is consistent with rarity of eating mushrooms. Presumably, the Shors and Komi had different adaptive strategies answering to the low levels of UV. The Shors developed higher tissue sensitivity to vitamin D, when the Komi increased consumption of foods rich with ergocalciferol and calcium.
Conclusion. Engagement with the common taiga-forest type of economy reverberates in similarity of gene pools of the Komi and Shors, and the results of molecular genetic analysis are consistent with characteristics of their traditional diet.