Понятие ценности в социологической теории: влияние и (недооцененные) возможности его интерпретации с позиций гештальт-психологии
The article offers a historical reconstruction of the influence of the concept of value interpreted as “requiredness” emerging in the context of the holistic situation, which was initially developed in Gestalt psychology in the works of M. Wertheimer and W. Köhler, on the development by T. Parsons of both, the sociological theory of institutions and the understandings of the nature of social order and the normative dimension of social action proposed by him. The contribution of Gestalt psychology to the justification of the possibility of an empirical study of values in the social sciences is analyzed. Particularly, it is shown that understanding of values as contextual effects of requiredness overcomes the alleged irreducibility of normative-prescriptive judgments to descriptive ones (“is” − “ought” problem) and serves as an argument against the popular methodological position of axiological relativism. Two examples of the potential relevance of the idea of “requiredness” developed in Gestalt psychology for the further elaboration of some new arguments and approaches in modern sociological theory and sociology of morality are presented.
Hi-tech innovative alliances tend to have more key sustainable competitive advantages in comparison with those out of alliance, especially because alliances allow the companies to switch through the partners the financial burdens and intellectual investments in innovations. BRIC make an important input into Gross World Production and its hi-tech industries grow faster than others over developing countries. However companies of these industries still lack internal resources of innovative and technological facilities, e.g. Russian companies, because of that alliances (usually, international anв transnational) acquire more and more popularity. Alliances give the access towards resources and competences of the direct and indirect partners. The paper describes the empirical evidence of alliances efficiency factors and its influence on the high-tech companies of India and China. This evidence can be replicable to some extent and useful to the development of Russian companies. According to the testing results it is possible to assume, that efficiency of alliances has the significant impact on the corporate value in the mid-term. The crisis has significant impact on the observable dependencies.
The first volume contains articles devoted to the problems of sociology of space, as well as the theory and the history of sociology. The main issues considered here are the theoretical analysis of the phenomena of empire, the theoretical problems of mobility and globalization and the perspectives of sociological theory in Russia. The are followed by the articles on the value of the classical works of J.-J. Rousseau, F. Toennies, M. Weber et al. The conluding chapters are devoted to the German conservative sociology of intellectuals.
The paper shows the connection of the normative-value system of Russians with the existing type of Russian society. On a large empirical data estimated specificity and stage of sociocultural modernization experienced by contemporary Russian society .
Max Weber. Basic concepts of sociology. Unabridged translation.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.