Роль внутреннего диалога в процессе формирования речемыслительной деятельности студентов – будущих психологов.
The theoretical analysis of a problem of internal dialogue is presented in article as factor of development of speech and mental activity of students - future psychologists. The main theoretical approaches to understanding of an internal dialogue of the personality are designated, types and functions of internal dialogue in a context of professional activity of the psychologist are allocated.
The study presented in this article is based on the definition of science as a cultural phenomenon, offered by T.S. Kuhn. This approach enables the treatment of psychology of personality and general personology as an open world of cultural phenomena such as productive ideas and theories, models and scientific facts, methods and practices, interpretations and communications. The genesis and potential of these phenomena can be discovered by the cultural phenomenology of the personality. Using methods of hermeneutics, modelling and building of reflexive practices which are relevant to cultural methodology of personality, the author proposes the idea of the internal dialog I —Оther as a significant intrapersonal condition in developing the self-identity of the I. In understanding self-identity its achievement is emphasized as a path where the trend of the I to preserve itself meets with challenges of unidentification with self and further identification at new levels. A structure is offered for developing dialog oriented towards the multilevel reflective opening of the I in relation to the Other from positions of the I and the internal Other. It is shown that such a dialog can enrich and strengthen the self-identity of the I through harmonization, problematization and synthesis of I-representations obtained from the above positions. The author’s idea has been developed as a continuum: hermeneutical model — theoretical model — reflective model. It addresses the task of studying and actualizing the opportunity to achieve the self-identity of the I in internal dialog.
The article is aimed to confute the belief held about the nature of the world view of Marcus Aurelius as pessimistic. The analysis of “Meditations” demonstrates that the text represents a dialogue between a stoic sage and an ordinary man, Marcus Aurelius being in the guise of both. The article proves that the guidance of the philosopher king is positive in its nature, calling one to fulfill manfully their duties aimed at the welfare of the World and Rome while manifesting love to people and showing no fear of failure, suffering or death. The article concludes the necessity of comprehensive analysis of the epoch, activities and “Meditations” of the Roman emperor in connection with the existential phenomenological analysis of his personality.
The article is aimed to confute the belief held about the nature of the world view of Marcus Aurelius as pessimistic. The analysis of “Meditations” demonstrates that the text represents a dialogue between a stoic sage and an ordinary man, Marcus Aurelius being in the guise of both. The article proves that the guidance of the philosopher king is positive in its nature, calling one to fulfill manfully their duties aimed at the welfare of the World and Rome while manifesting love to people and showing no fear of failure, suffering or death.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.