Диссертационные рецензии в России второй половины XIX– начала XX в.: анализ конвеций
At the turn of the 19th‐20th centuries, scientists focused on the procedure of the dissertation research’s scientific verifications and created expert forms for assessing the quality of scientific work. One of these procedural forms became peer review. During this period, it acquired the status of a compulsory appraisal examination of the quality of scientific works, and, at the same time, it became a certain ritual practice. Gradually, reviews of dissertations began to encompass accepted scientific criteria, principles of the structure of scientific work. In this article, the author identifies the process of registration of these academic conventions and answers the question what is scientific research in the opinion of scientists at the turn of the 19th‐20th centuries. For this goal a discursive analysis was carried out of the reviews for dissertations during the period. Until now, researchers have rarely formulated such tasks in relation to documents on the conferment of academic ranks of the second half of the 19th–early 20th centuries. The research shows that in the process of reviewing and evaluating the text, scientists broadcast the ongoing processes of formulating academic norms and the meaning of basic research principles.