Возрастной рейтинг заболеваемости населения старше трудоспособного возраста Самары
The approaches to the understanding of successful and sustainable development of the society are changing before our eyes. The focus shifts from the economic indicators showing the welfare of the state, to measuring of the subjective indicators of happiness that reflect the individual's subjective well-being. The paper analyzes the level of life satisfaction according to age in different societies. The relationship between the degree of development of inclusive institutions and the satisfaction with life is revealed.
This chapter deals with age and educational dimensions of the labour supply in Russia, and looks into two time periods covering 15 years in retrospect and the next 15 years in prospect. For our analysis we exploit the micro-census (2015) data and all labour force surveys (LFS) waves covering the retrospect. Using demographic projections we can forecast employment structure up to 2030. These two dimensions are directly associated with such challenges as aging and over-education of the labour force. If in the recent past age and education contributed to the economic growth, in the next 15 years their effect is likely to be less beneficial if not negative. This will pose a challenge to the prospective economic development through a number of channels. Russia is not unique here but seems to be more exposed than many others to both due to its demographic and educational developments.
Informing about safety along with the creation of safe living and movement conditions is an important task for preserving the independence of the elderly. The article describes the experience of the UK in limiting risk factors that can lead to various injuries of older people and even their death. The success and effectiveness of measures, which ensure safe living of elderly people, can be assessed through such indicators as age-standardized mortality rate from external causes and life expectancy at age 65. According to these indicators Russia significantly behind the UK, and given the global trend of an ageing population, we should use the experience of UK in our country.
Numerous studies have found a reduced speed of linguistic processing in older adults, particularly in sentence processing. However, it has been suggested that the reduction of processing speed in older adults is a strategy that they adopt for reasons of caution in order to avoid potential error and/or to conserve "cognitive resources". This hypothesis has been tested in the linguistic domain only once. To test the hypothesis about the strategic nature of slower sentence processing speed in older adults, our experiment address whether they have a greater tendency than younger adults to use a processing speed that is slower than their performance limits. Participants were presented with syntactically complex sentences word-by-word, first in a self-paced mode and then in two externally-paced sessions: (1) at their individual median speed from the self-paced session and (2) twice as fast. After each sentence, participants answered a comprehension question with two response options. We assumed that an external speed increase will cause a greater decrease in response accuracy in younger than older adults, because older adults tend to choose a self-paced sentence processing speed that is further away from their performance limits. However, in the current sample, the hypothesis was not confirmed. Thus, it seems that the slowdown of language processing in older age is a compensatory mechanism, inevitable and necessary to provide the same level of language processing as at a younger age.
Russia’s age-specific mortality pattern due to external causes differs substantially from those observed in other developed countries. One of its distinctive features is rather low mortality at older ages. A comparison of mortality rates due to certain groups of causes falling into the category of “External causes of morbidity and mortality” shows that low mortality due to external causes at older ages in Russia is the result of specific coding practices for fall-related deaths. Mortality due to other groups of external causes in Russia, however, is high compared to other countries.
Mortality due to external causes at older ages has specific features that distinguish it from younger age groups. This manifests itself both in significant changes of the mortality structure within the category of “External causes of morbidity and mortality” appearing with age and in risk factors specific to the elderly population.
This article presents a brief analysis of elderly mortality in Russia due to certain groups of external causes, a study of current trends and a comparison with some other developed countries. The analysis concerned two age groups: 60-74 years and 75 years and older. This made it possible to identify specific characteristics of mortality due to external causes separately for the young and older elderly.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.