Objective — to make a systematic search and an analysis of evidence for the long-term population-based efficiency of screenings and other measures implemented in the framework of Stage 1 screening during periodical health check in the Russian Federation according to the Order №36ан dated 2015. Material and methods. A systematic search was carried out independently by two authors in four databases: Scientific Electronic Library, Cochrane Library, Medline/PubMed, and USPSTF. Systematic reviews are an investigated publications type. The criteria for the efficacy of screening were overall and specific mortality and disability. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed by two authors by the procedure using the international AMSTAR questionnaire. Results. Only a fecal occult blood test and abdominal aorta ultrasonography have a scientific justification as screening methods in certain age and gender populations by the criterion for reducing the specific mortality, while the methodological quality of systematic reviews is high and medium/high. The efficiency of mammography in women has not been proven in high methodological quality studies.
In recent years, regional executive bodies and health aithorities have paid much attention towards chronic non-communicable diseases prevention and healthy lifestyle development among the population of the Russian North. Objective - to study the implementation of the regional state policy for chronic non-communicalble diseases prevention and healthy lifestyle promotion in the regions of the Russian North. It will allow to identify the best practices, innovative methods and mechanisms how to work with different segments of the population. It will be useful for further replication in order to improve population health in the northern territories as well as in other Russional regions. Material and methods: aithors used as the empirical basis for comparative analysis annial documents and reports on the organization of public health for 2015 of six regions: Yamalo-Nenets Aitonomous District, Sakha Yakutia, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Komi Republic, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Murmansk region. Results& Conclisions: authors identified main directions for regional, local programs and initiatives' improving in order for better healthy lifestyle promotion and early non-comminicable diseases prevention in rural and remove areas of the North of Russia. There are a real need for strengthening the role of leading state regional medical organization, which coordinate work on chronic non-communicable diseases prevention and healthy lifestyle promotion, organazing Coordunation Councils for inter-agency cooperation, and organizing active participation of the population in all events under the framework of World and National Health Days and fight against diseases. Very important to use modern and interactive technologues for working with young people.
In modern Russia youth mortality is higher than in European countries, and over the past 50 years this gap has widened. The aim of this article is to trace the dynamic of youth mortality in Russia in 1959-2014, to compare it with European counties and based on the analysis of differences in the causes of death to understand due to what factors the gap has grown over the past 50 years. To achieve this aim the analysis was implemented. As a result, it’s set that the main differences in Russian youth mortality are appeared in the mortality level of the classes “External causes of death” and “Cardiovascular diseases”. Incomplete epidemiological transition and catastrophic increase in mortality from these main causes of death in 90th in Russia widened the gap in mortality level with European countries. Downward trend in youth mortality in Russia on such rubrics in the class “External causes of death” as “Transport accidents” and “Intentional self-harm” began to form from the mid-late 2000s. In turn, in European countries this tendency was observed at the end of XX century. High mortality of young people is defined by both objective factors (quality and availability of medicine) and subjective factors (self-estimated health, care for health, attitude towards medicine, risk-taking behavior, value of their own life and life of others). Subjective factors connect with vital behavior – people actions, aimed at the preservation of physical, corporal and psychological health. Unlike other classes of causes of death, the class “external causes of death” reflects directly the tendency of young people to risky behavior and unfavorable environment conditions. Therefore the difference in mortality level between Russian and European youth is difficult to overcome without any changes in Russian youth vital behavior.
In Russia road-traffic accidents are one of the main causes of injury of the population. In 2016 more than 220,000 people were injured in road accidents, whereas 20,000 people died. Published review of injury epidemiology in the UK and Europe found that many studies relied solely on mortality rates from injury to describe epidemiology while deaths comprise only the top of the injury pyramid. It could lead to erroneous estimates of the total burden of injury.
This study is designed to assess both the years of life lost due to premature mortality and disability caused by road traffic fatal and non-fatal injuries, using integrated indicators of the population health. We use methodology of disability-adjusted life years (DALY), as well as an empirical database of the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate, medical statistics (№ 57) and statistics on deaths from vital registration system.
In the most Russian papers the years of life lost due to premature mortality were estimated, whereas in this study we estimated the whole burden of road-traffic accidents caused by fatal and non-fatal injuries in Russia in 2012. Our estimates of DALY due to road-traffic accidents in Russia in 2012 are close to WHO’s estimates, exceeding them by 4.5%. It indicates the ability of using Russian medical statistics to assess DALY without using different international models.
Introduction. A priority task of Russia’s state policy is to increase life expectancy (LE) up to 78 years by 2024. In the Russian North, the task is very ambitious. Aim of this study - to identify a combination of ages and causes of death, which is able to ensure an increase in life expectancy in the northern regions of Russia to the level of 78 and 80 years in the coming years. Material and methods. The study used data from the Federal State Statistics Service, Statistics Finland and the international Human Mortality Database and WHO Mortality Database. The contribution of mortality from different classes of causes to the growth of life expectancy was evaluated using the decomposition method. The mortality rates of the northern regions of Russia were compared with those of Moscow, Finland and the hypothetical world population. Results. Simultaneous mortality reduction from the circulatory diseases and external causes of death is the main source for increasing LE in the near future in the nothern regions of Russia. The priority of reducing mortality from neoplasms instead of external causes will not lead to a planned LE increase by 2024 and even by 2030. Conclusions. The epidemiological transition in the northern regions of Russia remains incomplete. The priorities for reducing mortality today are not able to lead to the target life expectancy in the northern regions of Russia.
The paper gives the results of an empirical study evaluating the social efficiency of the international voluntary project dance4life in Russia, the objective of which is to prevent HIV infection and AIDS and to form healthy lifestyle among young people. Analyzing the implementation of the project has shown that the participation of young people in the project has a noticeable positive impact on their level of awareness, frustrates myths about HIV/AIDS, and develops their social and healthy lifestyle skills, on the one hand. On the other, their project involvement favors the increased voluntary activity and self-organization of young people participating in the project.