«Еврейский вопрос» - в публицистике Ф.М. Достоевского и Г. фон Трейчке
The 60-s and 70-s of the 19th century were in Europe an era of the triumph of liberal values, an era of a powerful modernization process that also embraced the conservative monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe. This process also extended to the Russian Empire, where after the defeat in the Crimean war, grandiose reforms were launched, which to some extent can be compared with the Peter the Great’s revolution from the top of the beginning of the XVIII century. But already in the late 1870s, many, both in the West and in the East, began to doubt the meaning of modernization, which was increasingly identified with the Jews. This fight against the so-called “Jewish troublemakers” acquired new quality when influential authors such as Fedor Dostoevsky and Heinrich von Treitschke joined it. This article is dedicated to this topic.
The article introduce translation of John Rawls's research "The Law of Peoples". This lection was written in 1993 and has not been translated into Russian before. This article analyses the conception of international justice extended by Rawls considering its terminology, methodology and basic points. International justice is explored in correlation with rawlsian fundamental theory of justice. But through the special scope conception of international justice based on liberal values goes beyond liberal societies and gives a framework for transformation of international law and policy.
The significance of rational dialogue between believers and secular citizens, which has been offered by J. Habermas, becomes unquestioned because of increase of religion’s activeness in the public sphere. But “postmetaphysical” solution of this problem has been criticized by B. Trainor, D. Uzlaner and other researchers. The paper deals with the strategies of philosophizing, which let to interpret the metaphysics as the discovery of some structures of understanding. This way can avoid some quasi-scientific ambitions of postsecular philosophy as well as the ethical and epistemological relativism.
An attempt of research of a ratio of the theory and practice in François Guizot scientific and public work is undertaken in this article. Guizot is the central figure of the French liberalism of the first half of the XIX century. The theory and practice of this thinker synthesized liberalism and conservatism.
Ernst Bloch and His Contemporaries is a much needed concise yet comprehensive overview of Ernst Bloch's early and later thought. It fills an important gap in research on the history of German thought in the 20th century by reconstructing the contexts of Bloch's philosophy, while focusing on his contemporaries - Georg Lukács, Walter Benjamin, and Theodor Adorno. Ernst Bloch's influential ideas include his theory of utopian consciousness, his resolute inclination to merge aesthetics and politics, rehabilitation of hope, and atheistic conception of Christianity. Although Bloch's major early texts, Spirit of Utopia and Traces, have recently been translated into English, and there has been renewed interest in Bloch over the last 15 years, he is still relatively unknown compared to other left German-Jewish intellectuals. Ivan Boldyrev places Bloch's often enigmatic prose within contexts more familiar to English-speaking readers, and outlines the most important messages in Bloch's legacy still relevant today to European intellectual discourse, in particular aesthetics and philosophy of history.
This study used basic personal values to elucidate the motivational meanings of “left” and “right” political orientations in 20 representative national samples from the European Social Survey (2002–2003). It also compared the importance of personal values and sociodemographic variables as determinants of political orientation. Hypotheses drew on the different histories, prevailing culture, and socioeconomic level of three sets of countries—liberal, traditional, and postcommunist. As hypothesized, universalism and benevolence values explained a left orientation in both liberal and traditional countries and conformity and tradition values explained a right orientation; values had little explanatory power in postcommunist countries. Values predicted political orientation more strongly than sociodemographic variables in liberal countries, more weakly in postcommunist countries, and about equally in traditional countries.
The article is devoted to centrist political thought in the period of Bourbon Restoration in France (1814–1830) represented by three major movements. Traditionalist School developed a legitimate method in philosophy and affirmed that only the monarch wields unrestricted political power. Republicans and socialists claimed that revolution achievements should be secured on the level of state institutions. And between the upper and nether millstone were liberal centrists united in the group of Doctrinaires.
The results of research presented in the monograph, are divided into three interrelated sections. In the first section called "The problems of methodology" the emphasis is made on the ontological analysis in economic methodology, on relationships between theoretical models and reality. In the second section "General problems of economic systems analysis" the authors deals analize prerequisites of macroeconomic theories and the current crisis of the mainstream economics, as well as new approaches to the analysis of reproduction of fixed capital. Concluding section presents critical analysis of "orthodox economic doctrines" - Marxism and neoclassical canon of XXth century economics in the context of economic evolution.
The political process is a constant interaction between the power and opposition. The political process is a constant clash between the formal and informal, between direct speech and metaphors. Power always makes sense only if there is resistance. The power resistance is balanced in favor of its dialectical opposition. Practice protests are taking place at all political regimes, but not always the possibility of resistance are similar. In some political systems interlocutor on government and realization of the right to revolt are an essential political and moral principle. In other cases, in dictatorships, the right to revolt conquered by a hard struggle, not always being efficient and not always getting massive. The author shows how, depending on the cultural traditions of the images may vary resistance. Indeed, the figure of the rebellious person differently perceived in the political landscape. The discourse of resistance can be filled by individual practitioners of dissent, as well as robust tradition of protest. Relations between the power and rebellious man shows and interpreted by the author in a variety of subjects belonging to different cultures. From the point of view of the author, in the practices of rebellious man in his quest for freedom and demonstrate their own position, you can find both special and general, is equally emphasizes the integrity of the political process.