Связь характеристик учителя с академической резильентностью учащихся
The paper examines student resilience, i.e. resilience in students who, despite poor social and economic situation, demonstrate high academic performance. The authors attempted to study the relationship between school teachers and students, characteristics of a teacher related to his/her chances to build student resilience. The study is based on the longitudinal project titled “Trajectories in Education and Careers” which includes the results of a survey among students and teachers as part of TIMSS-2011 and PISA-2012. As the PISA 2012 focus was mathematical literacy, the resilience was measured in terms of scores in mathematics. Thus, the paper also considers the relationships between a student and a mathematics teacher. The authors used logistic regression with cluster-based correction as a method of statistical analysis. The results show that student-teacher relationships are an important predictor for student academic performance. However, personal character of relationships impacts academic performance positively to a greater extent than the atmosphere in student-teacher relationships in general. What is important for a student in his/her relationship with a mathematics teacher is to understand what the teacher expects from him/her. Chances to be resilient is higher when teachers listen to students, treat them fairly and are always there to help. In addition, students from a gymnasium or a lyceum (vocational school) are more likely to become resilient than students from common schools. This may be caused by different school curriculum, specific atmosphere in lyceums and gymnasiums, as well as parents’ interest in children’s performance
A field study was performed by experts from the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations conducted by HSE in cooperation with the Levada Center. Interviews and focus groups were organized with school principals, teachers, students and their parents in three schools teaching the most challenging type of students from low socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, who nevertheless achieve high learning outcomes. This is a follow-up of the 2015 study of environment characteristics, management and education strategies of schools operating in unfavorable social contexts. Such schools are defined as resilient, meaning that they successfully resist the disadvantaged context beyond their control. The schools surveyed differ in the number of students, education programs, and the level of regional deprivation, yet all of them pursue similar strategies that are well-targeted and recognized by all educational process participants. Such strategies include: introducing limited selection and levelling off the student body, imposing high expectations and transparent requirements to learning outcomes, providing individual support and encouragement to students, and developing the skills boosting graduates’ chances of successful socialization. Consistent implementation of these strategies will create conditions to promote academic resilience among students. Studying the experience of such schools appears to be crucial for solving the problem of inequality in education.
This article examines how migrant background influences educational outcomes of schoolchildren in Moscow and its oblast (region). We use logit regressions for panel data, over the years 2010 to 2013, taken from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE). As dependent variable we use educational progress approached by school grades as reported by parents or adult relatives. In addition, our econometric specification includes control variables such as socioeconomic status, type of school, health issues, gender, and age, to test the impact of migration status on the probability of being classified as a successful or unsuccessful student. The findings suggest that there is no difference between migrant and native schoolchildren, that is, migration background does not influence the educational achievements of pupils. On the other hand, as we expected, socioeconomic status has a negative impact on the probability of being classified an unsuccessful student. Boys have lower probabilities than girls of being classified as excellent students. Attendance of public regular schools negatively affects the probability of being an excellent student, health issues do not significantly affect the academic performance, while older students are low-performing.
The Future of Education, edited by Pixel, is a collection of international peer-reviewed conference proceedings. The reviewers, members of the scientific committee, include experts in the field of higher education, university lecturers and researchers. The topical areas cover effective teaching and learning, constructivist and generative approaches in education, education in specific areas and for specific groups of learners, innovations and new technologies in educational fields? curriculum development and new approaches in evaluation of educational results.
Earlier papers revealed educational differences in mortality in Russia in 1970’s–1980’s were at least as significant as in Western countries, and were largely similar to those observed in Eastern Bloc. Starting from 1998 there is a little knowledge about socio-economic characteristics of mortality since data collection has been discontinued and resumed only in 2011. Contemporary vital statistics on death is suffering from missing data on educational attainment of deceased (25,4% of all records in 2015). By proposing three approaches to overcome difficulties with missing data this paper presents new estimates of life expectancy at age 30 (LE30) by educational attainment among Russian men and women in 2015. According to the third approach absolute mortality differences between high-educated and low-educated is 17,5 years for men, 14,5 – for women. Despite the fact that LE30 has been growing for the last decade and has returned to the level of the late 1980’s, the level of absolute and relative inequality in mortality has increased. In terms of the causes of death mortality burden of infectious and parasitic diseases, external causes, diseases of the respiratory organs is more unevenly distributed between educational groups in modern Russia and is primarily on low-educated population.
This article empirically studies the impact of bilingualism on educational achievements. This relationship has been thoroughly studied in a number of countries around the world, but not in Russia. We used a sample of 709 ethnic Tatar school students aged 15–16 (in the ninth grade) in the spring of the year 2010. We found a positive significant effect on school grades based on logistic regressions, and controlling for family background characteristics, school characteristics, psychological attributes, health issues, peers, gender, and the impact of the capital city Kazan. Oral bilingual children, who use Tatar language at home, are more likely to obtain the highest grades in literature and chemistry classes, and they have lower probabilities of obtaining the lowest grades in Russian language, literature, geometry, and physics. We did not find negative impacts on school grades due to the use of Tatar at home. Therefore, we found evidence in favour of bilingualism and against the assumption of Russian policymakers that bilingualism threatens the knowledge of Russian.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.