Mental health literacy in Ghana: Implications for religiosity, education, and stigmatization
Research on Mental Health Literacy (MHL) has been growing internationally. However, the beliefs and knowledge of Ghanaians about specific mental disorders have yet to be explored. This vignette study was conducted to explore the relationships between religiosity, education, stigmatization, and MHL among Ghanaians using a sample of laypeople (N = 409). The adapted questionnaire presented two vignettes (depression and schizophrenia) about a hypothetical person. The results revealed that more participants were able to recognize depression (47.4%) than schizophrenia (15.9%). Religiosity was not significantly associated with recognition of mental disorders but was positively related with both social and personal stigma for depression, and negatively associated with personal and perceived stigma for schizophrenia. Moreover, education was found to relate positively with disorder recognition, and negatively with perceived stigma. Finally, perceived stigma was positively associated with disorder recognition, whereas personal stigma for schizophrenia related negatively to recognition of mental disorders. In conclusion, education but not religiosity predicted identification accuracy, but both predictors were associated with various forms of stigma. Findings from this study have implications for MHL and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
Experimental research of the spatial ideas in the context with schizophrenic spectrum disorders in various degree of intensity is presented in the article. In addition, predisposition to the latent psychic pathology of the different genesis (including endogenous) can be defined by means of the spatial ideas' peculiarities (they are in close connection with the perception and thought peculiarities) research.
Basic components of the cognitive activity distortion peculiarities among young men and women with schizophrenic spectrum disorders research results are analyzed in the article. Pattern, specific to the persons with schizophrenic spectrum disorders is descript in the article: they have formation and interdependence of the cognitive activity’s basic components specific.
This article scrutinizes personality variable of successful coping with stress termed hardiness (inventors of the term are Susan Cobeisa and Salvatore Maddi, the author of the Russian equivalent zhiznestoikost' is D.A. Leontiev). Thе work offers results of the comparative examination of hardiness in students of an Orthodox university and of secular universities.
In online social networks, high level features of user behavior such as character traits can be predicted with data from user profiles and their connections. Recent publications use data from online social networks to detect people with depression propensity and diagnosis. In this study, we investigate the capabilities of previously published methods and metrics applied to the Russian online social network VKontakte. We gathered user profile data from most popular communities about suicide and depression on VK.com and performed comparative analysis between them and randomly sampled users. We have used not only standard user attributes like age, gender, or number of friends but also structural properties of their egocentric networks, with results similar to the study of suicide propensity in the Japanese social network Mixi.com. Our goal is to test the approach and models in this new setting and propose enhancements to the research design and analysis. We investigate the resulting classifiers to identify profile features that can indicate depression propensity of the users in order to provide tools for early depression detection. Finally, we discuss further work that might improve our analysis and transfer the results to practical applications.
In the industrial era, work was the main activity for a person, determining its status in society, image and lifestyle, which undoubtedly influenced the formation of a certain notion of "good" and "bad" work, of prestigious and popular professions, and as a consequence, image of the "traditional" form of labor.
The article examines ways of describing human experience and behavior from the first, the second and the third-person perspectives and their applicability for people with schizophrenia. It is quite difficult to describe the experience of such people from the third-person perspective, hence there is a great need in address to other methods and paying attention at prospects connected with them. Moreover, the article presents the changeability of conceptual framework depending on whose experience and behavior we investigate.
The article discusses the concept of "religious person", the substructure of personality religious rights (religious consciousness and religious behavior and religious relations), analyzes the reasons for the classification types of believers, these foreign and domestic authors.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.