Стратификация российского общества по жизненным шансам и рискам: динамика структуры и мобильность россиян
The papers focuses on stratification of Russian society based on life chances and risks in economic conditions of life, situation at work, possibilities of maintaining and increasing human capital, consumption and leisure. It examines the dynamics of the structure, the movement of Russians between the structural positions and their mobility between strata. Based on RLMS HSE panel data for 2013- 2018 yy. it was revealed that the stratification model is formed, stable, and the main trend was to increase a number of positions from the lower stratum to the middle one. The structure is highly dynamic - various chances or risks form and disappear from year to year in everyday life of most Russians. At the same time the stratification is characterized by low mobility rates - the fluctuations mentioned above lead to a change of stratum for no more than a third of Russians. It is shown that there are zones of sustainable well-being, living standard and disadvantages, and the latter being significantly wider than the former. Staying in these subgroups is mainly associated with the position of individuals in the labor market, which is significant not only for working Russians, but also for pensioners. It is because the specifics of their work activities in the past depleted their physical resources to varying degrees, provided unequal opportunities to continue working after reaching retirement age, and as a result, significantly differentiated their chances for wellbeing at their old ages. It is also shown that although stratification by chances and risks correlates with income stratification, sustainable well-being is far from the everyday routine of high- income Russians, just as sustainable disadvantages is often typical for non-poor people, which is a challenge for Russian society and social policy.