«Я ничем вам не помог…»: исследовательская рефлексия вслед неудачному интервью
In this article the concept emotional labor introduced by A. R. Hochschild is overviewed as well as her own research and further development of this idea in relation to service workers and professions of social welfare state in particular. The author claims that there is a heuristic potential of the theory of emotional labor in the sphere of service, where care and special attention to clients are required. This concept is essential also in the understanding and research of the risk of the emotional dissonance or alienation, and the solidarity of the service workers and their protests against the emotional norms of the corporate culture. This approach can be useful for social policy analysis, in particular, in the studies of professions of welfare state.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.