Imbalance between Social and Economic Functions of Cities and Regions
The article substantiates the growing destructive impact of imbalance in the level and disproportions of development between social and economic functions of cities in economic growth in modern-day Russia. It presents a set of tools for functional typologies of cities based on identity of levels of social and economic functions in cities, which is different from the existing pool of instruments available for regional research. The typology of cities is built based on experimental calculations of integral indices of social and economic functions of cities. The study substantiates a need to monitor balance between social and economic functions of cities for practical application in day-to-day city management and strategic planning.
The article examines the issues of legal regulation of the municipal management as well as financial and economic activity in the cities of the Altai district in the second half of the 19th – the early 20th centuries determined by the rapid development of capitalist relations in the region.
Subject This article deals with the issues related to the imbalance in the distribution of cities, which poses a threat to the economic development and social and political stability of Russia.
Objectives The article aims to estimate the temporal growth of Russian cities between 1897 and 2014.
Methods During the consideration of the subject matter, we applied Zipf's law, Gibrat's rule of proportionate growth, and the correlation method. The article analyzes the data of official statistics and archival materials for 1897–2014.
Results The article presents the results of the analysis of distribution of cities of Russia by number of inhabitants in the period of 1897–2014 and a temporal correlation matrix of Russian cities' growth rate during the specified period.
Conclusions The process of urban growth for the period 1897–2014 is ambiguous. Since 1989, large cities have been growing faster than the small ones due to the migration of people from small cities to larger ones. In general, the urban system of Russia is characterized as stable with uneven distribution of cities and high concentration of population in the largest of them.
The understanding of concentration processes about resources, population, enterprises in some regions and in the cities is very significant for economists and policy-makers. It’s caused by the worldwide urbanization trend and local trend of economic activity agglomeration that increase the regional development differentiation within the country. Issues of economic activity locations and space distribution are solved by scientists over the past two centuries. Recent works show the increasing interest of economists to the Zipf’s law testing in the regional system and the rank-size distribution of the cities. Research aims are to test the Zipf’s law in the Russian cities and to test the hypothesis that the Russian Zipf coefficients depends on the size of the geographical territory of the Federal District.Methodology. In the paper it’s used least square method for tasting the Zipf’s law in Russian cities in general and separately for the federal districts. There is 1,123 Russian cities panel (cities with over 1,000 people population in 2014).Results. The Zipf’s law is confirmed in the territory of Russia in general. According to the Federal Districts the Zipf coefficients range from -0.65 (Far Eastern Federal District) to -0.9 (the Urals and the North Caucasian Federal Districts). Equitability of cities hierarchy in the Ural and the North Caucasus Federal Districts dues to the fact that there are 139 cities located in the 1,789 thous. km2 in the Urals and 56 cities in the 170 thous. km2 in the Caucasus. In the Far East the city location is very disperse - 66 cities in the area of 6000 thous. km2 (Zipf coefficient - 0.65). Conclusions. Testing of the Zipf’s law for the Russian cities in general shows that it’s valid for the small (8,600 – 15,300 peoples) and large cities (66,700 – 331,000 peoples). For cities panel with population exceeds 100 thous. people. The Zipf’s law is not valid for cities of more than 1 million people. (exception – the city of St. Petersburg). The result of the study is the confirmation of the hypothesis that the Zipf coefficient depends on the size of the Federal District.
The study of the problems of spatial development and management of the territories of economic development of the Russian North and the Arctic finds relevance within the implementation of the tasks outlined in the Strategy of spatial development of the Russian Federation and the State program of socio-economic development of the Arctic zone for the foreseeable future. Providing the sustainable development and spatial connectivity of the Arctic regions is necessary for the development and practical application of effective organizational and economic solutions.
The paper analyzes the state policy in the field of socio-economic development of the Arctic regions of Russia, assesses the role of the Northern sea route as an important driver of development of the Arctic regions. Based on the analysis, key conclusions are drawn about the factors such as low population density, low level of infrastructure development, significant distance from the main industrial bases of the country, unfavorable climate for living and economic activity etc which affect and increase the risks of economic activity on spatial development of the Arctic regions.
In these conditions, the priorities of the Strategy of spatial development of the Arctic zone of Russia should be the modernization of its entire transport and logistics system. The most effective forms of spatial organization of the economy and its governance may be territorial clusters, as well as territories
of advanced socio-economic development. They could help in ensuring the implementation of an integrated approach to the development of the Arctic territories and contributing to the diversification of the Arctic region’s economy, attracting investment and thereby improving the quality of life of the population.
The practical significance of the conclusions lies in the possibility of their use in updating strategies and programs for the development of the regions of the Russian North and the Arctic in order to form an effective mechanism of governance for coordinating economic activities and providing an integrated approach to the development of these territories.
Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm—the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The Centre for Sociological and Political Sciences Studies of the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences held the Round Table “Tourism in Africa: Prospects for Development”. Participants of the round table placed considerable emphasis on the fact that African countries that have committed to developing tourism industry face both old problems – including but not limited to political instability, high level of crime, visa restrictions, poor transport infrastructure and medical facilities, sanitary-epidemiological risks, institutional constraints, harmful climate change – and new challenges such as uneven socio-economic development due to the relatively narrow geographic scope of tourist flows, the growing number of terrorist attacks against tourists, sociocultural conflicts between locals and visitors, adverse and often irreversible environmental degradation and biodiversity loss, especially affecting wildlife.
Much attention was paid to the rapid development of intracontinental tourism in Africa, which has become an influential new trend that may alter the trajectory of this industry and have wider socio-political repercussions, facilitate economic and even political integration. Participants extensively discussed the influence of political instability, wars and terrorism on tourism. It was generally agreed that tourists are quite sensitive to security threats, though, with regard to terrorism, which is a low-probability risk, particular financial incentives and public relations campaigns may drastically reduce its temporal impact.
Another major theme was the up-trend in niche tourist markets in Africa such as genealogical, agricultural, medical and luxury tourism. While the absolute contribution of these forms of tourism to the overall turnover remains meager, various countries have seen rapid growth in some of these sectors. Most participants agreed that the continent has vast potential of tourism, which remains unrealized due to the lack of corresponding government policies and insufficient financial backing.