Смертность и продолжительность жизни в России за полвека
A critical analysis of A. Omran’s theory of epidemiologic transition (ET) and of its various interpretations. The periodization of ET proposed by Omran is called into question, and the differentiation of the two "epidemiological revolutions" by M. Terris is compared with it. The paramount historical importance of ET as a trigger and an integral part of the demographic transition as a whole is noted. Disagreement with the interpretation of ET as an integral part of the “health transition” is substantiated. The concept of the "cardiovascular revolution" is contested. A method of graphical representation of ET is proposed and the criteria for its completion are discussed. Disagreement with ideas about the "first", Neolithic, and "third”, expected in the future, ET, as well as about a "reverse" ET is substantiated. Problems with “catching up” ET in the less developed countries are considered.
эпидемиологический переход, эпидемиологическая революция, демографический переход, санитарный переход, стадии эпидемиологического перехода, кардиоваскулярная революция, вероятность умереть, средний возраст смерти
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.