Сегментные правила в автоматическом парсере корпуса хакасского языка
The article describes a fragment of the work process of an automatic parser for Literary Khakass. It analyzes data using “synthesis”, i. e., through multiPLe straight and reverse passes that check various hypotheses. The article describes the transformation of a morphophonological transcription of a word-form into an orthographic one. Literary Khakass is not very normative as a language, and existing grammars do not reflect every feature of its morphophonology well enough. Thus, for some stages of the process we use rules derived from our analysis of the corpus data and of the dialectal materials we have collected.
This is a short overview of the linguistic features (phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon) of the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, with a representative bibliography.
The Indo-Aryan languages (sometimes also referred to, misleadingly and not quite correctly, as Indic, with special focus on Sanskrit) represent the largest group of the Indo-European both by the total number of speakers of the present-day Indo-Aryan languages (approx. one and a half billion of the total three billion speakers of Indo-European languages) and by the number of languages (ca. 225 languages recognized, for instance, by Ethnologue, thus making up more than half of all Indo-European languages listed by this source). The largest Indo-Aryan languages include Hindi and Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Rajasthani and Gujarati. At present, Indo-Aryan languages are spoken, above all, on the Indian subcontinent, also referred to as South Asia.
Background: Five-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI) often struggle with mastering grammatical morphemes. It has been proposed that verbal morphology is particularly problematic in this respect. Previous research has also shown that in young typically developing children grammatical markers appear later in more phonologically challenging contexts.
Aims: The main aim was to explore whether grammatical deficits in children with SLI are morphosyntactic in nature, or whether phonological factors also explain some of the variability in morpheme production. The analysis considered the effects of the same phonological factors on the production of three different morphemes: two verbal (past tense -ed; third-person singular -s) and one nominal morpheme (possessive -s).
Methods & Procedures: The participants were 30 children with SLI (21 boys) aged 4;6–5;11 years (mean = 5;1). The data were collected during grammar test sessions, which consisted of question/answer elicitations of target forms involving picture props. A total of 2301 items were analysed using binary logistic regression; the predictors included: (1) utterance position of the target word, (2) phonological complexity of its coda, (3) voicing of the final stem consonant, (4) syllabicity (allomorph type) and (5) participant accounting for the individual differences in the responses.
Outcomes & Results: The results showed a robust effect of syllabicity on the correct morpheme production. Specifically, syllabic allomorphs (e.g., She dresses) were significantly more challenging than the segmental ones (e.g., He runs) for all three morphemes. The effects of other factors were observed only for a single morpheme: coda complexity and voicing helped explain variability in past tense production, and utterance position significantly affected children’s performance with the possessive. The participant factor also had a significant effect, indicating high within-group variability - often observed in SLI population.
Conclusions & Implications: The systematic effect of syllabicity across both verbal and nominal morphemes suggests morphophonological influences in the grammatical development of children with SLI that cannot be fully explained by syntactic deficits. Poorer performance in producing syllabic allomorphs can be accounted for by much lower overall frequency of these forms, and by the ‘tongue-twisting’ effect of producing similar segments in succession, as in added [ædəd], washes [wɒʃəz]. Interestingly, the greater acoustic salience of the syllabic allomorphs (an extra syllable) does not enhance children’s abilities to produce them. These findings suggest that the interconnections between different levels of language have a stronger effect on the grammatical development of children with SLI than might be expected. Allomorphy should, therefore, be taken into account when designing language assessments and speech therapy, ensuring that children receive sufficient practice with the entire set of allomorphic variants.
The correct (prescriptive) or incorrect usage of grammatical constructions is regulated by the tradition of codification. The standardizing practice is based on the analysis of reference texts and the logic of the language’s grammatical system. Therefore, the same phenomena can be interpreted as corresponding to or deviating from the norm, depending on the corpus of sources taken as the basis of a normative description. The article uses the data from the Russian Learner Corpus, the Russian National Corpus and the Internet to analyze the cases of plural predicates with the subject kto — ranging between those accepted by recommendation norm (apart from its most rigorous version represented in school practice) and peripheral ones, typical of everyday and colloquial speech. Grammatical, semantic and pragmatic reasons for the predicate coordination in the plural have been discovered. Among the factors defining the choice of plural predicates are the supporting components in the context of the plural form (determinative t’e; quantifier vs’e; the predicate of the main clause or of the independent statement in the pretext — in echo-questions or parallel constructions; the predicate of the subordinate clause, depending on the relative construction kto prishl’i; the supporting name or substantive at the top or in the nearest context, including the position beyond the limits of the statement); the semantics of multiple subject of action; the semantics of the predicate (not presuming taking actions alone); the type of grammar construction, including the model under consideration (e.g. kto, kak n’e tur’isty, znayut or on’i kto uyehal’i, a kto ostal’is’).
The process of a foreign language acquisition seems to learners rather complicated not only at the beginning or intermediate level but while breaking into the upper levels also. This article makes an attempt to reinforce the understanding of the factors which can evidence the more advanced levels of a foreign language, in particular English. Likewise the criteria of the proficiency level and methods contributing to language skills improvement are considered.
This book (1428 pp.) includes the reconstruction of the phonetic system of Proto-Darginian Languages, main aspects of Darginian morpho-phonology, etymological vocabularies of Proto-Darginian nominal and verbal stems. The reconstruction was based on 7 main Darginian languages. There are more than 3100 reconstructed entries in this book. The book's provided with indexes of meanings, of 7 Dargignan languages and outer etymological correspondeces.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.