Субъектная референция в ижорском и водском языках: из истории одного заимствования
The article deals with a diachronic study of subject reference in Votic and Ingrian (Finnic branch, Uralic family). At present, in these languages, as in Russian, the subject pronoun is predominantly expressed explicitly (Ingrian: Miä muiššan šenen hüväšt ‘I remember it well’). However, this pronominal pattern is not typical for other Uralic languages, where the pronoun tends to be omitted (at least in the first and second person). In this regard, the genesis of pronominal referential pattern in Votic and Ingrian languages is of great interest. Basing on the diachronic analysis of Votic and Ingrian texts (mid 19th – early 21st century), the article shows how the pronominal pattern has developed through the Central and the Lower Luga dialects of Votic and through the Soikkola dialect of Ingrian. All idioms demonstrate a significant expansion of third person subject pronouns in the middle of the 20th century. This process coincides with the period of increased contacts with native speakers of Russian and can thus be explained by contact influence.
The article discusses one argument in favor of descriptive theory of reference of proper names against the theory of direct reference which appeals to a famous example of the ship of Theseus. The author defends the latter theory by means of distinguishing the object of direct reference and its principles of individuation. The argument is discussed with reference to the works of H. Chandler, L. Linsky, S. Kripke, N. Salmon and other theorists.
The article is focused on the subjec-matter of activity mediation of interpersonal relationships. In contrast with functional-role and personal-emotional ones it is determined by orientation of people's activity towards "universal "I" and by logic of the "object". Levels-layers of intragroup relationships determined by the goal of collaborative activity, personal-business relationships, private emotional-personal relationships are described. The reasons for qualitative difference between activity-mediated relationships in a collectivity and activity-mediated relationships in a corporation as well as the potential of activity-mediated relationships to "warm up" private emotional relationships in a group are analyzed. Phenomena and peculiarities in life of a group revealed by the author of activity mediation theory are related to categories of transactional analysis and the other systems of counseling psychology. That gives the way to the special - personological - approach to the further research.
Legal Translation In The Law Terminology Coreference Perspective
The article revisits a sustainable phenomenon inherent in languages for special purposes (domain-specific sublanguages) – multiple nomination of concepts exemplified by the legalese and correlating with cognitive representations of domain-specific knowledge. This phenomenon profiles an obvious problem area in special translation theory. Synonymy is treated in line with Yu.D. Aprecian’s concept whereby lexical units are regarded as semantically related if and when they appear referentially identical, i.e. co-referential. Co-reference gives rise to complexities in perceiving and comprehending legal texts in English–Russian translation. An interdisciplinary paradigm is applied for singling out an earmarked direction within the modern Translation Studies – Domain-Specific Translatology. A new name to once customary ‘special translation theory’ draws translation researchers to focus on profound studying of professional translation/interpreting across domain-specific fields, i.e. expert communication area, with the view of analyzing problems aggravated by the terminological co-reference available both in the source-language and target-language as well.
This article features issues related to the inherent structure of legal texts in its relation to the text-internal mechanisms specific for these texts. In particular, the analysis is centered around a legal texts’ propensity to ‘avoid’ pronominal deictic elements, as well as other deixis ordinarily employed for text generation. Legal texts perception is deemed dependent on referencing practiced by the reader. Accents are placed on the ontological difference immanent for texts of law; such difference stipulates their distinction from regular and, thus expected, textual patters; this quality being characterized by minimized elliptical constructions and extended endophoric reference links.
The chapter demonstrates how quantitative corpus methods used in linguistics research may help to rank different realizations of the same phenomena: the use of dative subjects in predicative and adjective constructions. The core idea of the research is to study the distribution of dative subject constructions with predicative and adjective forms that potentially can be used in such constructions, i.e., the tendency of the construction to be used in explication or omitting the dative subject. While usually the predicates are classified on the basis of whether they can potentially be used with a dative subject, the author studied the trends for explicit use of the dative (or prepositional beneficiary arguments) among the “dative subject predicates.” The chapter shows that the frequency rates of the real use of dative subjects can be very different with different predicates. Finally, data from the eighteenth and twenty-first centuries are compared and hierarchical clustering used to reveal diachronic trends.
This article deals with functional peculiarities of religious discourse in different historical periods. As a significant part of religious discourse the sacral text appears whose study is undertaken with regard to historical, chronological, sociocultural and situative factors. The main emphasis is centered on the hermeneutic, etymological, grammatical, lexical analysis of translations of the St. Mathew’s Gospel made in different languages at various language development stages.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.