Life and scientific work of outstanding Chinese sociologist Fei Xiaotong
Fei Xiaotong (费孝通) (2 November 1910 - 24 April 2005) was the prominent anthropologist and sociologist of China. He was one of the first sociologists and anthropologists who conducted anthropological studies of the life of Chinese society. He was a political journalist and a “cultural intermediary” who published articles about the West in Chinese in China, and about China in English in the West. Fei Xiaotong’s career was full of ups and downs that were associated with the political situation in the country. Finally, after 1978 and starting of the period of Economic Reform and Openness he could re-enter public and scientific life, and officially became a respected academic and a public intellectual which dedicated all his life to the investigation of Chinese society and social problems. For many people, Fei Xiaotong’s works became the first sources, from which it was possible to obtain various information about the Chinese village. His works made us think about the laws of social development and on what methods they should be studied. He believed that it was necessary not only to develop sociology but to go its way, to strive to develop Chinese sociology with all its specifics. Fei Xiaotong devoted his entire life to studying Chinese society and the changes taking place in it. The main stimulus that inspired him all his life was the hope that the Chinese peasants will live better and better, and with them, China will become stronger and more prosperous state.
In the coming decades in the process of globalization the position of the USA and Europe will weaken, while the role of developing countries will increase. The role of the two largest emerging economies – China and India – will be of special significance. What future will these fast-growing giants face? The demographers agree that pretty soon India will lead the world in population and thus surpass China, while China will encounter serious ageing population problems. But economic and political scenarios of the future are quite different: from resounding success and world leadership to collapse caused by demographic and socio-political troubles. Which of them is more feasible? In the present article I analyze the Chinese and Indian development models separately and comparatively and make a forecast of their perspectives in the twenty-first century. Such an analysis could be helpful for understanding Russia's ways of development.
Nuestro país ha cambiado más en 20 años que en los dos últimos siglos. Las transformaciones que hemos vivido durante la democracia (la transición española)* y los cambios que ha traído la integración en el Mercado Europeo se han sucedido con gran velocidad y han afectado a todas las facetas de la sociedad. El español de los 90 es más tolerante y está abierto a nuevas ideas a la vez que se mantiene fiel a su cultura y tradición. Tal vez por ello no parecemos muy satisfechos con la integración en Europa. Según el estudio sobre la Realidad Social en España, del Centro de Investigaciones sobre la realidad social (Cires), el porcentaje de personas que creen que la integración europea no ha beneficiado a España es el de un 59%. Sin embargo, esta insatisfacción no parece afectarnos excesivamente. La mayoría de los espaňoles se declaran felices y contentos con su vida. Más de un tercio elegirían ser lo que son si volvieran a nacer. Más de la mitad no desean parecerse a nadie. Pero veamos en qué hemos cambiado según los diferentes ámbitos de vida.
The aim of this research was to contribute to the discussion on the role of visual methods in improving student learning. Visual methods provide means to understand the practices of representations as cultural texts, to develop interpretations of meanings in socio-cultural context, to decode images of social relations and individual experience. Visual sources play a growing role in social studies as well as in teaching as they offer new routes to understanding the past and the present. It was anticipated that when students learn to interpret visual images of social issues as constructs and metaphors in addition to reading relevant literature they might develop critical and contextual imagination, namely connect individual incidences to historical conditions and social institutions, to link seemingly impersonal and remote forces with the lives of real people in concrete institutional and symbolic environments. The main data set included anonymous student journals and portfolio with assignments. The study documented student discourse around visual methods implementation and examined student identities as sociologists, their perceptions of academic expectations at universities, their views of the curriculum, and their identity claims. The results are concerned with the outcomes of teaching and learning considered not only in relation to visual methods but also to the public sphere and sociology. The more and less desirable identity for a sociologist was articulated, some tensions and biases were discovered but more research is needed in order to see more explicitly the role of visual methods and other pedagogical tools in overcoming these barriers.
The achievements of the youngsters who interpret between their parents and institutions of the "admission society" are mostly invisible. From this everyday practice a whole spectrum of problems serious every now and then – but also results in potentials. In this bigger empiric investigation up to now unique in the German-speaking space on the subject Vera Ahamer puts new impulses in translation science, linguistics, sociology, educational theory – above all, however, also in the "migration discourse" as well as in practice for those people who deal every single day with this kind of the interpretation.