Жизненные модели молодых людей: представления о будущей семье и модели, транслируемой родителями
The article substantiates the introduction of the “life model” construct as a fragment of life scenario in a specific area of human life and describes the development of tools for its study.The results of a study on life models of relationships in young people (on a sample of 100 students of St.Petersburg State University, the average age of 21 ± 1.1 years) are presented by the following parameters: the need for creating a family and maintaining close relationships; understanding the nature of relationships in a future family (distribution of responsibility and power); commitment to family life space in comparison with the students' perceptions of their parents’ life models.The paper characterises the impact of parental family on the individual’s life scenarios.It shows that the consistency of life models reveals itself in the young people’s desire to reproduce their parents’ model of emotional intimacy in relationships, provided that they evaluate the relationships in their families as successful; no such consistency was found in the professional sphere.Finally, five types of life models in the young people are described, emphasizing the leading role of closeness/distance with parental family in their content, which confirms the fundamental importance of the respondents' orientation towards close relationships with their parental family.
The article reveals the aspects of personal life scenario structure in the context of E. Berne’s transactional analysis. Dream is comprehended within the potential therapeutic work on diagnostics and transformation of life script. Here is also suggested to distinguish ―pro-scenario‖ (conservating) and ―antiscenario‖ (transformational) tendencies in dreams; several cases of reflexive practice on nightmares providing ―anti-scenario‖ experience are given as well.
Background The issue of antisocial behaviour and adolescent aggressiveness are usually studied from the perspective of family psychological well-being. Social and economic inequality of contemporary families are important factors of cultural and historical context of the of modern adolescents’ developmental situation. Objective The paper provides an attempt of articulating the theoretical basis of adolescents’ aggression, i.e. family SES analysis. The paper is also dedicated to the research of differences in adolescents’ aggression indicators within gender- and family SES- groups spectrum. Design The research was conducted as an online survey in the public schools of Russian Federation. The present sample consisted of 883 respondents (59% were females, 41% were males). The average age was 16 years. Adolescents’ aggression was assessed by the short version of Buss-Durkey Inventory. Statistical analysis methods included Kruskall-Wallis test, T-test, Mann-Whitney test and factor analysis (maximum likelihood). Results. The study revealed that differences in aggression indicators are mainly reflected in the subjective aspects of aggression (resentment and guilt), and also a general indicator of aggression depending on the socio-economic status of the family. Different levels of preparedness for physical aggression are shown by respondents from families in which only the father or only the mother works. Both females and males are prone to various manifestations of aggressiveness. Differences in indicators of aggression in the context of cultural capital and the socio-economic status of the family are reflected mainly in the subjective aspects of aggression. Conclusion. Statistically speaking, the differences obtained are quite significant, but from an absolute point of view they are extremely small. The indicators of socioeconomic well-being of a family are related to adolescent aggression indirectly, with psychological characteristics being the key point. Specific features of the relationship between parents and the child, features of educational practices preferred by parents, features of family organization, etc. Economic well-being appear only a condition that facilitates or, conversely, complicates the implementation of educational practices adopted in the family. The major role belongs to the activity of both parents and children. A further research is required to verify the latter.
Scenarios of lazy life of northerners and the peopleы оа Far East as a cause of migration in the central regions of the Russian Federation and the cause of neurotic behavioral syndrome described combined copyright term "neurosis of deferred life" (NDF) are described.
Young people are a vulnerable category of workers, finding themselves in a delicate phase of their working life: their first entry into the labour market. In many European countries, youngsters are unemployed or have difficulty finding and obtaining jobs. This situation has deteriorated particularly after the crises, recessions and stagnation that has impacted European economies in recent years. In addition to the cyclical or crisis impact, structural factors are also very important. Additionally, prolonged crises, as in some Eurozone countries, have transformed a significant part of cyclical unemployment in structural (long term) unemployment.
Young People and the Labour Market: A Comparative Perspective explores the condition of young people in the labour market. The authors present new evidence from several countries, with a special focus on Europe, and offer a comparative perspective. They investigate questions such as which structural conditions and labour market institutions guarantee better youth performance, which education systems and school-to-work processes are more effective and in which countries is gender differentiation less of an issue. All of the aforementioned, as well as many other comparisons which the authors make, are significant in helping to facilitate the successful design of labour and education policies.
As the first investigation by economists to explore the complexity of this topic, this book will be useful to both economists and sociologists who are interested in the role of young people in the labour market, and the problem of youth unemployment.
Youth unemployment is at present a crucial issue in the EU policy agenda, as well as in the agenda of other developed and developing countries. The economic crisis, which began in mid-2008, has had severe effects on EU and Eastern Europe labour markets and especially on young people. The key aim of this introductive chapter is to review and present the contributions included in the book, that is the upshot of the EU IRSES project “The political economy of youth unemployment”. It also summarizes the most relevant articles already published by the authors involved in the EU project.
In the article attention is paid to the issue of territorial migration of youth. The concepts of migration and mobility, a comparative analysis of the two youth groups: the first group included young people from 17 to 30 years, the second people in the same age category who change their place of residence for professional education of the first level. The analysis is performed on parameters such as residence, marital status, education, work, life satisfaction in general.
The paper gives the results of an empirical study evaluating the social efficiency of the international voluntary project dance4life in Russia, the objective of which is to prevent HIV infection and AIDS and to form healthy lifestyle among young people. Analyzing the implementation of the project has shown that the participation of young people in the project has a noticeable positive impact on their level of awareness, frustrates myths about HIV/AIDS, and develops their social and healthy lifestyle skills, on the one hand. On the other, their project involvement favors the increased voluntary activity and self-organization of young people participating in the project.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.