Знаки животных и символы человека: взаимовлияние идей Я. фон Икскюля и Э. Кассирера
Some ways of mutual influence of the theoretical biology of Jakob von UexküIl and the philosophy of symbolic forms of Ernst Cassirer are discussed in the article. Although Cassirer to a large extent emphasized the differences between the human world as the world of a symbolic being from the animal world as the world of an organism whose behavior is built due to its ability to recognize signs and signals described by UexküIl, Cassirer’s attention to the important concept of Umwelt introduced by UexküIl allowed him to detail and refine his theoretical conception. Both scientists fruitfully developed and applied interdisciplinary research strategies: Cassirer, realizing his genuine interest in theoretical biology, and UexküIl, extending his concept of Umwelt to the human world.
In this paper the author explores how such phenomena of consciousness as a symbolization and a functioning of cultural phenomena are interrelated. It seems important to find out specifics of symbol as a product of symbolization, distinguish it from the other logical-semantic categories. To solve these problems, in general, the author turns to Losev’s and Cassirer’s approaches. As a result of the investigation, it becomes clear that there is a symbolic function of consciousness, which is primarily responsible for mediating of the material human perception, providing a principle for the organization of entire systems of meanings. The main paper thesis is the following: the principle of symbolical organization of the content plays a key role in the process of applying the meanings to the reality. So, it proves that the formation and functioning of the sphere of cultural phenomena is strongly influenced by symbolical principle.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
Some methodological foundations for elaboration of the modern strategies of ecological thinking based on the theoretical biology and on the theory of complex adaptive systems статье are under review in the article. Ecology, being a science of interaction of living organisms and their communities with environment, goes far beyond its primary frames of the biological knowledge and becomes a nodal discipline from which vectors of perspective interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge diverge. The ecological approach turns to be fruitful in social and humanitarian researches. Ecology of action, ecology of mind, ecology of life, of cognition and of creativity, ecology of thoughts and words, ecology of ideas, ecology of communication and ecology of management – all these conceptual attitudes give evidence of audacious integration of the ecological thinking in wide spheres of the humanitarian and social knowledge, where it gives opportunities for some fresh approaches. The concept of Umwelt coined by Jakob von Uexküll in 1909 and his study of Umwelt (Umweltslehre) are of great significance for the development of the modern ecological universalism and for elaboration of strategic imperatives of the ecological thinking. The concept of Umwelt as a specific environment to which any biological species or its separate individual is adapted and which is constructed by it allows us to elaborate a real interdisciplinary platform for development of the theory of ecology, for holding a reasonable position in discussions about sustainable development and sustainable futures as well as about the role of education for sustainable development of the world.
In this paper a sign-based or semiotic formalism is considered. Neurophysiological and psychological researches indicate sign-based structures, which are the basic elements of the world model of a human subject. These elements are formed during his/her activity and communication. In this formalism it was possible to formulate and solve the problem of goal-setting, i.e. generating the goal of behavior.
A semiotic interpretation of «I» is given, and conditions of existence of the I outside the boundaries of subjective reality (the possibility of «noumenal I»). We start by acknowledging the imaginary character of the I: in front of us is but a ghost, some «patterns», «compositions», «drawings», «charts» of some object X named «I» that are experience by me (who?), and some «texts» that describe the inner machinery of the former and its relations to the environment (and, among other things, to other similar ghosts of «You», «We», «They»). Further, we discover that «I», a symbolic formation within the psyche, becomes its own «object» (designatum) by mediating the currents of activity the individual generates as a physical entity. The real I is a form in which an individual exists, defined in the encounter of his/her inherent «subject less» activity with the cultural symbols (prototypes) of the I, «impressed» into the individual by culture. As a result of those encounters emerge the true subject of cognition, which constructs an image of the world (contemplative I, thinking I, receiving I, possessing I), the true subject of activity (goal-setting I, achieving I, influencing I, giving I), and the true experiencing subject (enduring I, coexisting I, transcending I).
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.