Biennial art and its rituals: value, political economy and artfulness
The visual art of the last decades privileges, explicitly or implicitly, social rather than art historical or aesthetic issues. In sites ranging from university classrooms and journals to museums and biennials, the emphasis is usually put on how effectively art handles the social issues of the day while questions of aesthetic value are often treated as suspicious and ideological. Given this anti-art character in these contexts of mediation, the insistence to perceive the objects as artistic objects constitutes a paradox that has been rarely discussed in sociological terms. This article draws on ethnographic research in order to explore “biennial art” that is to say the art that displayed in contemporary art and international platforms of showcasing. These platforms struggle to maintain a concept of art as social practice while at the same time nurture an exclusive and highbrow environment in which “artfulness” is key. I call this quality artfulness so as to both underline its artificiality as well as the inventiveness and skills required for its production. Artfulness in these sites is enabled through various formal or informal rituals of valorization, including guided tours, curatorial statements, media promoting activities and artist talks. These rituals, positioning certain objects within the sphere of art and producing them as objects meriting aesthetic interpretation, resemble the politics of publicity found in aesthetic capitalism at large.
This collection of essays was published in a form of a catalogue for one of the propgrams screened at the Yamagata International Documentary Film Fstival in October 2019. The program entitled "The Creative Treatment of Grierson in Wartime Japan" was co-organized by the Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival and the National Film Archive of Japan and presented a broad variety of wartime Japanese documentaries as well as British and Soviet films that have influenced them. The collection of essays explores the development of wartime Japanese documentary cinema from variety of historical and theoretical perspectives.
In the space of topical stereotypes Saint-Petersburg obtains such naming as «cultural capital», «city of museums», «brilliant Imperial city». However, in the light of the changing economic, social, cultural reality the conservation of this kind of «brand» is a losing strategy. The article provides guidelines and historical-social analyses of such phenomena of modern cultural life of the city as creative clusters, various festivals of the international level. From the point of view of social inclusion such spaces and activities are to implement creative aspirations of citizens, that is valuable to the cultural life of the city: the economic component of this situation allows as to speak about various kinds of financial investments in the cultural sphere, as well as on the development of the tourism industry, different from the traditional «excursion» form. For the « creative industry» stipulates the status of the dominant and the determinant of innovation development of the urban space.
In recent decades, the biennial has become the most widespread mode of showcasing contemporary art. Rather than acting as mere aesthetic containers, these shows aspire to be socially relevant by raising questions about capitalism, colonialism, inequality, environmental devastation, and gender imbalances. In this chapter, we draw from ethnographic observation of the 7th Berlin Biennale (2012) that took place in the context of a rising anti-capitalist discourse reflected in the Occupy movement and the movement of the squares. We explore the outcome of curators’ attempts to disrupt existing practices by introducing the logic of activism. Drawing from empirical vignettes, we identify three institutional rationales that coexisted, clashed, and mutually displaced this logic, reaffirming rather than disrupting the idea that art has to preserve some distance from social reality, that neo-anarchist activism should prefigure social reality in the here and now, and that the configuration of the above through the organization’s politics of visibility that promotes the spectacle of the Berlin Biennale and itself as a brand. These three rationales concomitantly and decisively structured the event’s public performance and turned the idea of linking art to activism into the spectacle of a human zoo. We discuss our findings and link the micro-institutional logics to broader macro-level logics of aesthetic capitalism and spectacle.
Zimmermann (1824–1898) contributes an important Ästhetik to the history of aesthetic formalism and he is a major representative of Vienna Herbartianism. In my analysis I show, on the one hand, that he aims at delivering a systematic work, based on the insights which Herbart had already provided, without treating them exhaustively. On the other hand―I argue―it is not unproblematic to reconcile Zimmermann’s views with Herbart’s ideas, especially when crucial notions such as ‘form’ and ‘relationship’ are considered. Paradoxically, the distance between the two thinkers ultimately emerges from the essay in which Zimmermann examines the analogy Herbart himself had drawn between music theory and practical philosophy. My conclusion thus is: where Zimmermann broadens Herbart’s theories, pursuing their explanation and systematic completion, he betrays the main issues of Herbartian formalism and philosophy; Herbart’s most profitable theories―concrete formalism and functionalism―are abandoned in favour of abstract, void constructions.
The aim of this article is to study an influence of various cultural festivals in St. Petersburg on development of the creative industries in the city. The definition of prospects of the development of culture of «Russia’s Northern Capital» demands the analysis of an existing scientific and administrative discourse concerning interaction in a city on Neva the rich cultural heritage and new creative industries. The situation of St. Petersburg as а large European cultural center and one of the important cities of the Russian Federation allows to define prospects of its development as «creative city». It includes also the analysis of cultural, social and economic consequences of the development of festival movement.
The aim of the study is to examine the various forms of interaction between cultural heritage and creative industries to support the development of various types of cultural clusters in St. Petersburg. The study was based on a model, which provides several types of partnership cultural heritage (CH) could have with the creative industries (CI): CH as a “decoration” for the CI, as “content”, as a “brand”, as the creator of the needs. Authors’ classification of cultural clusters in St. Petersburg is described, including clusters of cultural heritage, ethnic cultural clusters, the mass-cultural (consumer-oriented) cultural clusters, art - incubators. One of the main findings is the low willingness of many public cultural institutions to have any form of interaction with the creative industries. The second group of findings concerned the ability to attract creative industries to provide services for residents of St. Petersburg in cooperation with public institutions of culture.
The aim of the study is to analyze the role of the new creative industries for the regional development of the cultural heritage. It is particularly concerned with the definition of the city space. The research focuses on the modern ways of not only conservation, but rather analysis, interpretation and consumption of various cultural products. This paper includes investigation of economic, political, social and cultural consequences of the interaction between different cultural establishments. The author of this article researches the creative industries with the examples of the creative clusters and the creative projects in comparison with traditional cultural institutions. In general this paper provides evidence for the positive cultural and social changes in the region by reason ot the development the creative industries in St. Petersburg
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
This paper explores, mainly from a legal perspective, the extent to which the Russian regulations of traditional TV and online audiovisual media policies have been consistent with the Council of Europe (hereinafter CoE) standards. The study compares between the CoE and Russian approaches to specific aspects of audiovisual regulation including licensing, media ownership, public service media, digitalization, and national production. The paper first studies the CoE perspective through examining its conventional provisions related to audiovisual media, the case law of the European Court of Human Rights as well as the CoE non-binding documents. The paper then considers Russian national legislation governing audiovisual media and the Russian general jurisdiction courts’ practice on broadcast licensing. The paper suggests that the Russian audiovisual regulations are insufficiently compatible with the CoE standards and more in line with the Soviet regulatory traditions.