Общие и специальные навыки как компоненты человеческого капитала: новые вызовы для теории и практики образования
Human capital theory in recent decades has become the basis for educational policy in many developed countries. Expert discussions, however, often undervalue research findings and developments related to this theory that since the 1970s have consistently enriched understanding of how human capital contributes to personal well-being and socioeconomic development of society as a whole. Educational policy lags behind these elaborations, which leads to a decline in the impact of education upon development worldwide. In the 21st century, fundamentally new trends in socioeconomic dynamics pose unprecedented challenges for educational systems around the world, including Russia. Despite the quantitative growth of money and time spent on education, performance per unit of education costs has fallen. The human potential, created by education, is facing more and more difficulties in its capitalization: economic growth is slowing down at both at the country level and globally. This situation brings to life new attempts to claim insignificance of education for economic growth and for individual success. So far, these attempts have not been very influential in educational policy, but in many countries, such arguments already serve as a backdrop for budget decisions that are detrimental for education. Educational systems need to complement practices that contribute to the development of human capital. In this regard, several theoretical elaborations that have not yet became part of the mainstream discussion on human capital, could be helpful for understanding the role of human capital in socioeconomic progress and possible ways to improve it in the short and long term.
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research is a compilation of the conference proceedings and the top papers presented each year at the Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC). BCERC is widely considered the premier research conference on entrepreneurship and the work truly exemplifies new frontiers in the discipline of entrepreneurship. Full text papers are peer reviewed; summaries, poster sessions and interactive papers are not.
The case addresses the problems of managing strategic change in a small business company Kislorod Plus (Niznhny Novgorod, Russia) – a local trader of welding equipment. The story starts with firing the company’s executive, who took a number of dramatic mistakes, and thus failed implementing corporate strategy, ruined the economy of the firm, and created a significant threat of bankruptcy. Notwithstanding all the problems of the heavy crisis, the company and the situation still have a number of opportunities that are to be recognized and pursued in order to save the business and lead the company to prosperity.
The volume deals with the current frontier research in entrepreneurship theory in Europe on contextual and processual specifics of entrepreneurial practice
The level of self-employment among immigrants is often higher than among natives. The purpose of this paper was to test empirically whether selective migration with respect to entrepreneurial characteristics may explain this difference. The relevant hypotheses were tested comparing representative samples of Russian immigrants in Norway and their stay-at-home counterparts. Data from the Russian population came from the 2008 GEM study, while data on Russian immigrants in Norway were collected through a specially designed postal survey. The analysis revealed some demographic dissimilarity between the two groups, as well as a presence of selective migration with respect to entrepreneurial characteristics. This study demonstrates that immigrants (as compared to non-migrants) are more likely to report intentions to start a business. Moreover, they possess relatively large amount of specific human capital, social capital and self-confidence relevant for entrepreneurship. The paper concludes with proposed practical implications and suggestions for further research.
Drawing on the neo-institutional approach in organizational theory and global strategy, we advance a theory on the impact that differences in cultural egalitarianism have on multinational firms’ decision of where to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI) across the globe. Egalitarianism expresses a society’s cultural orientation with respect to intolerance for abuses of market and political power; it shapes the ways in which firms holding power interact with different stakeholders. After presenting a series of case illustrations, we find a strong negative impact of egalitarianism distance on FDI flows in a broad sample of nations and for different entry modes. Our results are robust to a broad set of competing accounts, including effects from other cultural dimensions, major features of the legal and regulatory regimes, other features of the institutional system, and economic development. These results hold while controlling for origin and host country factors through a fixed-effects specification as well as by using instruments for egalitarianism. We also find that other cultural influences are important as well. Differences in cultural harmony are actually positively associated with increased FDI flows, likely because multinational firms seek countries with lower societal support for entrepreneurship. FDI further tends to flow from high embeddedness to low embeddedness countries, and we link this in part to international regulatory arbitrage on environmental protection regimes.
The book contains papers by the leading contemporary researchers of entrepreneurship who belong to the group of awardees of the Global awared in entrepreneurship research as well as outlines of their research activities. First concise collection of the mainstream entrepreneurship research ideas of the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21th centuries.
Relevance of statement and studying of a problem of entrepreneurial culture development of future managers is connected with features of development of the country, with orientation of the higher education to humanistic values and meanings. In our opinion the entrepreneurial culture can be considered in a context of cultures. The article presents a view on entrepreneurial culture in a context of "culture of usefulness and dignity". The entrepreneurial culture in the modern conditions, arisen as culture of usefulness, seeks to develop in itself lines of the personality significant culture, focused on dignity, "public understanding", the humanistic principle of "solidarity". Solving problems of modernization of the higher education, relying on competence-based approach, development of entrepreneurial culture in professional education of modern managers gets a special sense. Authors defined the basic principles and problems of the educational process directed on formation of entrepreneurial culture. Experience of faculty of management of NRU HSE in Nizhny Novgorod is presented in article, the program of entrepreneurial culture development of the youth is described. The program is realized consistently at three levels, each is caused by the purposes, methods, forms, age features of participants: The first level - "Formation of an image of the modern businessman". The second level – "An entrepreneurial mentality. First experience". The third level - "I am a businessman! ".
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
The book contains teaching materials and notes on the study course “Entrepreneurship”.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.