Популяционные показатели качества жизни, связанного со здоровьем EQ–5D
Introduction. The concept of health-related quality of life as a key factor in patient-doctor interactions is an important basis for making managerial and medical decisions in many foreign health systems. In Russia, the concept of health-related quality of life is in its infancy: it is required the theoretical, methodological and scientific-practical foundations development.
Aims and objectives. The aim of this study is to assess the health- related quality of life for Russian population based on the EQ–5D questionnaire and to form the average health indicators.
Material and methods. The survey was conducted on a sample of 1,602 people aged 18 to 92 years. The final sample is representative for the country and federal districts. We use using the Russian-language version of the EQ–5D questionnaire which allows us to receive two indicators for each respondent – health profile and index based on visual analog scale EQ–VAS.
Results. The study revealed the following results: (1) the majority of the respondents among all ages have the problems in EQ-5D dimension “anxiety/depression”; (2) women tend to detect moderate problems in all dimensions more often than men; (3) EQ–5D descriptive results are decreased in all components with the respondents age; (4) the most infrequent population’s problems among the all dimensions are found in the "self-care" dimension; (5) the age changes related to a decrease of EQ–VAS are associated with the general tendency of a decrease in the dimensions.
Discussion. To obtain the most accurate and objective assessments from the EQ–5D, it is necessary to conduct a study in accordance with established international protocols, compare the estimates with the average population indices and adhere to a thorough research design.
Conclusion. The study reveals the possibilities of using EQ–5D and the first health-related quality of life Russian population indicators that can be used as a basis for comparing between different population groups and patients.
Health-related quality of life is becoming the standard measure of personal well-being and human’s health worldwide. Indicators of the population quality of life allow taking into account the subjective incidence, which is often overlooked during routine medical care. In Russia, the health-related quality of life is becoming particularly relevant in connection with the problems of an ageing population, the development of national strategies and programs in the social and healthcare systems, and the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. The basis of the HRQoL measurement should be based on a proven and reliable methodology that generates comparable estimates of human well-being. Like any complex subjective indicator, HRQoL does not have an unambiguous direct method of measurement. The aim of this paper is a comprehensive description of the methodology for conducting and presenting the results of the study of the HRQoL using the European Quality of Life Questionnaire, EQ–5D. The paper discusses the measurement of HRQoL as a critical component of a modern health care system, describes in detail the administration of HRQoL data using the EQ–5D–3L questionnaire, and provides a methodology for analyzing and presenting the collected data in studies of population and patient health. We address the discussion to clinicians, healthcare providers, and researchers dealing with the problems of studying and measuring the health-related quality of life.
Objectives. The paper aims was forming the first health-related quality of life population indicators using EQ-5D–3L survey that represents the Russian population by gender and age, as well as by the attained level of education. Material and methods. For compiling population indicators, we use the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. The study was conducted on the adult Russian population aged 18 to 75 years. A representative sample was 12616 respondents. Results. 59.3 % of the sample is in good health (profile 11111). The proportion of respondents reporting any health problems increases with age. The average score on a 100-point visual analogue scale is 72.4 (standard deviation 18,1; 95 per cent confidence interval from 72,1 to 72,7). Men, on average, tend to assess their health higher than women. However there are no statistically significant differences in health scores among educational groups, taking into account gender and age data. Conclusions. Comparison of health-related quality of life estimations with normative population data allows us to track differences in health between population groups, as well as to analyze the health status and progress in treating patients. The Russian health-related quality indicators from EQ-5D-3L survey are similar to the Hungary population indices, as well as to many European countries, the USA, and Argentina for age cohorts under 45 years of age. For the cohorts of respondents older than 45 years, Russian estimations are much lower than in other countries. This evidence confirms that borrowing scales from other countries for converting EQ-5D-3L values into a preference EQ-5D-3L index is not acceptable for Russian patients, especially for the elderly.
Data management and analysis is one of the fastest growing and most challenging areas of research and development in both academia and industry. Numerous types of applications and services have been studied and re-examined in this field resulting in this edited volume which includes chapters on effective approaches for dealing with the inherent complexity within data management and analysis. This edited volume contains practical case studies, and will appeal to students, researchers and professionals working in data management and analysis in the business, education, healthcare, and bioinformatics areas.
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