Studying speech using the divide-and-conquer method [Review of the book Neural Control of Speech, by F. H. Guenther]
Classical models of speech production have primarily focused on the psycholinguistic aspects
of the process, identifying its components (i. e., meaning generation, lexical selection, functional assignment, phonological encoding and articulation) and how they interact [Bock, Levelt 1994; Dell, Change, Griffin 1999; Fromkin 1973; Garrett 1975 et al.]. This integral approach has pro- vided us with a solid conceptual understanding of the various processes involved at every stage of speech production, suggesting, however, that each of these stages is likely to have its own unique operational mechanisms. Thus, a more detailed exploration of each of these individual components of the speech production system is now required to build more refined and realis- tic models of speech production, reflecting how this multicomponent task of communication is orchestrated by the brain. For example, the articulation of speech needs to be studied separately from the lexical selection process because each relies on its own specific set of neuroanatomical structures and has its individual mechanisms of functioning and pathogenesis. “Neural Control of Speech” by F. H. Guenther is a brilliant attempt to tackle the problem using the “divide and conquer” approach.
The current paper considers the lexico-semantical type of performative verbs and performative utterances. The definition of performative verb and its characteristics are given in the paper. The author also regards the use of performative and conditions when the phenomenon of performativity occurs. Different approaches to taxonomy of performative utterances based on illocutary force are described.
Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop Organised by the Laboratory of Behavioural Neurodynamics, Saint Petersburg State University September, 2018. Edited by Olga Shcherbakova, Yury Shtyrov Saint Petersburg, Russia
We consider the problem of determination of the intelligibility of speech of a speaker according to a fi nite fragment of the speech signal. It is shown that the main diffi culties in the solution of this problem are connected with the necessity of analysis of small samples. To overcome the problem of small samples, we proposed a new high-speed method for measuring the intelligibility of speech signals on the sonic level of its perception. The proposed method is based on the information indicator of speech intelligibility in the Kullback–Leibler metric. We consider an example of practical realization of the new method with the use of a self-regression model of minimum sound units from the speech fl ow of a speaker. The characteristics of effi ciency of the new method are analyzed. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the application of the information indicator enables us to realize the general systems principle of guaranteed result. On the basis of the software developed by the authors, we designed and performed full-scale experiments and established quantitative estimates for the speed of this method. It is shown that, with the help of this method, quite accurate and reliable estimates of the information indicator are obtained for short (2–3 min) segments of speech signals. The accumulated results and the conclusions made on their basis are intended for applications in the development of new systems and improvement of the existing systems of automatic speech processing and recognition intended for the operation in the real-time mode.
The article is devoted to some problems of ensuring, implementing, as well as changing the principles of civil proceedings in the framework of the novels of the legislation regulating civil procedural relations
In this paper, we studied the phonetic approach for voice processing. A method for automatic recognition of speech signals, in which each quasistationary segment is associated with a fuzzy set of phonemes, was developed. We proposed the operation of the probabilistic triangular norm for fuzzy sets corresponding to the input frame and the nearest reference phoneme. The developed method was experimentally shown to allow a 1.5–5% reduction in the probability of erroneous recognition in comparison with known analogues.
The article describes the correlation of language and speech. Language and speech are related, but they are not identical; each of them occupies its niche in human consciousness. The language system is a verbose concept, which is derived from the process of speaking and understanding. Language reveals itself in individual speech and only represents he world, and not objectively. Language functions in speech, because in language communication a speaker uses permanent samples, cliches, standards that helps to form language environment for him.
This volume contains a collection of submitted papers presented at the conference, which were thoroughly reviewed by members of the Program Committee consisting of more than 100 top specialists, as well as an invited paper by Prof. Scharenborg. Each paper was reviewed, single blind, by two to four committee members (three reviewers on the average) and then discussed by the program chairs. In total, 57 papers were selected by the Program Committee for presentation at the SPECOM Conference. A total of 126 submissions were received and evaluated for SPECOM/ICR. The conference sessions were thematically organized, into Audio Signal Processing, Automatic Speech Recognition, Speaker Recognition, Computational Paralinguistics, Speech Synthesis, Sign Language and Multimodal Processing, and Speech and Language Resources. An increasing number of papers used deep neural network-based approaches across these themes.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
The present article continues the investigation of the Soqotri verbal system undertaken by the Russian-Soqotri fieldwork team. The article focuses on the so-called “weak” and “geminated” roots in the basic stem. The investigation is based on the analysis of full paradigms (perfect, imperfect and jussive) of more than 170 “weak” and “geminated” Soqotri verbs.