Низкооплачиваемые рабочие места на российском рынке труда: есть ли выход и куда он ведет?
The paper discusses the composition and dynamics of low paid workers whose hourly wages do not exceed two thirds of the median value. Using RLMS-HSE data for 2002–2016, we analyze how the size and the composition of low-paid employment, and the likelihood of being low-paid have changed over time. Our findings suggest that the size of the group has decreased from 30 до 24% of the total employment over the study period, while the chances of being low paid are significantly higher for those who have lower level of education, who are employed in low skilled jobs, and who reside outside large cities. However, the main focus of the study is on the earnings mobility of low paid workers. The key question is whether the low paid state is a dead-end and a long-term trap or is it just a stepping stone towards the high pay group? In order to answer this question, we apply a dynamic random effects multinomial logit-model, which allows to control for unobserved heterogeneity and to account for initial conditions problem. The study demonstrates high degree of structural dependence: two out of three low paid workers cannot exit this state over the year. This trap effect is stronger for women than for men. Though the stepping stone effect is also present, it is much weaker and relates to only one out of four low paid workers.
The shift from a centrally planned to a market-based economy involves, amongst other elements, the restructuring of state-owned or privatized enterprises. Realigning product lines, adopting new technology and imposing sound finances are all important stages in the integration of enterprises into world markets.
This book analyses the efficiency and equity of the economic restructuring in the two largest successor states of the Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine. It raises important questions such as why these countries have been relatively slow to pursue restructuring policies, how the transition has affected labour markets and institutions, and how it impacted on poverty and social safety. The analysis is based on a careful examination of micro-level data, documenting the experiences of and interactions between individuals and institutions.
In this paper the public-private wage gap is estimated by means both of the OLS and the quantile regression, which will provide a more complex picture of the distribution of the public-private sector wage gap. The author finds the existence of significant public-private wage gap (about 30%) considering both observable and unobservable characteristics of workers and jobs. Using the decomposition based on quantile regression helps to answer the question about the nature of the wage differences. The author comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the gap is the institutional mechanisms of public sector wages in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) 2000-2010.
The article is based on the results of the survey of migrant workers from Central Asia in Moscow and Moscow region. One of the key issues of the study was the degree of adaptation of migrants to life in the capital. The article discusses the issue both from the point of view of experts on labor migration and of the migrants themselves.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.