Поиск работы в России: модель разделённой совокупности
Studies on job search in Russia regularly raise the problem of separating seekers from non-seekers and forming a sample for empirical analysis of job search. Different researchers provide different solutions to the problem, but there are two main approaches to constructing a sample. The first one is to use data only on registered unemployment, the second approach is to use data from surveys that include questions on whether a respondent is searching for job and is ready to start working after receiving an acceptable offer. This paper provides estimates of an empirical job search model that explains both decision whether to seek a job or not and a probability of a successful search. That decision is unobservable and may not coincide with answers that individuals give during the survey. The model is estimated using data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) for the 2000–2014 period. According to obtained estimates, most of the non-employed may be considered as job seekers. The results not only provide a new insight into economic activity of non-employed but also show a possibility to significantly enhance information base for empirical studies on job search.
According to the common definition of unemployment, the unemployed are those who are not in paid employment or self-employment, are seeking work and are available for work. А job search model is estimated from a sample of the unemployed and from some extended samples of the jobless, obtained by loosening that definition gradually. Revealed similarities and differences constitute the result of the research.
In spite of a growing body of literature investigating the determinants of youth unemployment, studies at sub-national level are still scarce, especially for Russian regions. This article is an innovative attempt to analyse econometrically the key factors affecting the youth unemployment rate and the ratio between youth and total unemployment rates for 75 Russian regions in 2000–09. The existing literature on regional labour market performance and dynamics suggested the use of a large set of explanatory variables (with indicators of the level of economic development, the demographic situation and migration processes, and the export–import levels) in a GMM panel data analysis, taking into account both spatial correlation and endogeneity problems. Although we were searching for structural determinants, we also investigated the effect of the 2008–09 financial crisis. The econometric results, presented and discussed using several models, have key policy implications for both national and regional levels of government.
This article is dedicated to studying the condition and characteristics of Russian youths’ behavior in the labor market during economic crisis. The analysis is based on data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that the negative aftermath of the economic crisis, as well as expectations for the further decline of the economic situation, has undermined youths’ confidence in the labor market. They find themselves in an especially vulnerable position when enterprises shut down or in the case of job cuts. Opportunities for finding a job in the field of secondary employment have narrowed out, and there has been an increase in the amount of young people who are willing to work without signing an employment contract, who are ready to accept unfavorable working conditions. There is an acute sensation of incongruity between the demand for qualified workforce and those specialties which young people receive at higher educational facilities and secondary schools. The crisis has not only exacerbated many of the problems which young people face in the labor market, but it also has stimulated growth in the activity of young Russians when it comes to overcoming emerging troubles, not to mention it increased their interest in utilizing irregular means of material provision.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.