Технологические инновации на олигополистическом рынке: сохраняя природные ресурсы
This is the first paper on consumer search where the cost of going back to stores already searched is explicitly taken into account. We show that the optimal sequential search rule under costly second visits is very different from the traditional reservation price rule in that it is nonstationary and not independent of previously sampled prices. We explore the implications of costly second visits on market equilibrium in two celebrated search models. In the Wolinsky model some consumers search beyond the first firm and in this class of models costly second visits do make a substantive difference: equilibrium prices under costly second visits can both be higher and lower than their perfect recall analogues. In the oligopoly search model of Stahl where consumers do not search beyond the first firm, there remains a unique symmetric equilibrium that has firms use pricing strategies that are identical to the perfect recall case.
Many industries are made of a few big firms, which are able to manipulate the market outcome, and of a host of small businesses, each of which has a negligible impact on the market. We provide a general equilibrium framework that encapsulates both market structures. Due to the higher toughness of competition, the entry of big firms leads them to sell more through a market expansion effect generated by the shrinking of the monopolistically competitive fringe. Furthermore, social welfare increases with the number of big firms because the pro-competitive effect associated with entry dominates the resulting decrease in product diversity.
We study Bertrand competition models with incomplete information about rivals' costs, where uncertainty is given by independent identically distributed random variables. It turns out that Bayesian Nash equilibria of the simplest of these games are described as Cournot prices. Then we discuss general conditions when Cournot prices give Bayesian Nash equilibria for Bertrand games with incomplete information about rivals' costs.
«Менеджерлерге арнал#ан экономика» кітабы о9ырманды зама-
науи 9о#амда аса 9ажетті болып табылатын ?рі экономикалы9 ойлауды
9алыптастыру#а ы9пал ететін микро ж?не макроэкономика моделдеріні/
негізгі M#ым-тOсініктерімен таныстырады. Атал#ан о9улы9ты/ ерекшелігі,
мMнда теориялы9 моделдер мен тMжырымдарды/ практикалы9 9ызмет ба-
рысында пайдаланылуына басты назар аударылады. Экономист-аналитик-
терге, сарапшылар#а арнал#ан экономикалы9 теория бойынша д?стOрлі
о9улы9тардан айырмашылы#ы, «Менеджерлерге арнал#ан экономика» биз-
нес 9Mрылымдарда 9ызмет ететін немесе осы салада жMмыс жасауды жоспар-
лап жOрген практик мамандар#а арнал#ан. Кітапта іс жOзінде 9ызмет ат9арып
жат9ан нары9тар мен компанияларды/ на9ты мысалдары, тапсырмалар
(жауаптары берілген) ж?не кейстер келтірілген.
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of Business Administration (MBA)» білім беру ба#дарламасы бойынша 9осымша
к?сіби білім алушылар#а арнал#ан. Сонымен 9атар экономика саласына
9ызы#ушылы9 танытатын 9алы/ кHпшілік 9ауым#а — студенттерге, экономика
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Currently, successful business alliances are an important, crucial and one of the key strategic components in many industries and areas of production, industry and business. On the one hand, using the company's strategic alliances can increase and strengthen the competitiveness and market power, increase efficiency by gaining access to new and critical information resources and technical and technological capabilities. However, the issue there is another side of the coin, namely, according to statistics from 30 to 70% of established alliances fiasco. In other words, by alliances, do not meet the objectives of the parent companies and do not provide any competitive or strategic advantage, their success, or rather the failure does not justify the expectations imposed initially. It is important to note that over 50% of cases, the companies have entered into an alliance lost its value on the stock exchange, and some are even very quickly. The totality of the facts set out above leads to the creation of a certain paradox for companies. On the one hand, companies are faced with specific and significant obstacles in order to make the Union a smooth and successful, and on the other hand, they should and must form a larger number of unions than ever before, and have yet to rely more and more on them as a means to enhance their competitiveness, success and growth. In this article a review of the theoretical and methodological aspects of the formation of strategic alliances and presents regional industrial clusters of the Perm region, as a kind of strategic alliance.
The article raises the question of innovations in the field of real estate development in Russian Federation and ways of its potential development are considered.
The article considers the processes of progress in production and service sectors and answers the question how and thanks to what service sector of Russian economy left the productive one behind (concerning contribution in GDP of our country). The rates of development of service sector turned out to be so high firstly - as a reason of peculiarities of new Russian economy, which historically was built on the market principles and was developing in conditions of investment resources deficit, secondly - as a reason of system differences between «physical» goods and services as an object of sale. Nowadays Russia faces an unusual symbiosis: effective service companies, operating in hard competitive sphere with average profitability and non-affective from the point of management industrial companies, which thanks to monopolistic pricing have great profitability, providing profits of Russian budget and determining a macroeconomic situation.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.